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Various NASA-funded studies claimed astronauts' minds could be affected by their trip to Mars due to chronic radiation toxicity and other factors that could influence their moods and even their ability to think.

Also, the anatomy of astronauts' brains may be altered by space travel. Since emerging from the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts have demonstrated anatomical improvements in their minds. The brain physically moves upwards inside the head, where there is little connectivity between regions on the cortex layer of the brain and those inside the skull.

Scientists are still trying to figure out how these shifts influence behavior, but they're getting closer. Disorientation, visual illusions, coordination problems, and motion sickness are all known to affect astronauts. However, those conclusions are often focused on small samples.

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