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Astronomers have known that galaxies across the universe are behaving badly. Some are spinning too fast, while others are just way too hot and still others glommed into super structures too quickly.

But they don't know why. Perhaps some new hidden particle, like dark matter, could explain the weirdness. Or perhaps gravity is acting on these coalescing clusters of stars in a way scientists hadn't expected.

For decades, astronomers have debated the possibilities. While most astronomers believe that dark matter exists, some still think that we need to modify our theory of gravity. However, new research has found a critical flaw in modified gravity theories: They allow for effects to occur without causes and for information to travel faster than the speed of light. This is bad … for modified gravity.

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