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Since the 1960s, there has been speculation about a hypothetical propulsion method for interstellar space travel. Calculations at TU Wien (Vienna) show: it will remain science fiction.

In science fiction stories about contact with extraterrestrial civilizations, there is a problem: What kind of propulsion system could make it possible to bridge the enormous distances between the stars? It cannot be done with ordinary rockets like those used to travel to the moon or Mars. Many more or less speculative ideas about this have been put forward — one of them is the “Bussard collector” or “Ramjet propulsion.” It involves capturing protons in interstellar space and then using them for a nuclear fusion reactor.

Peter Schattschneider, physicist and science fiction author, has now analyzed this concept in more detail together with his colleague Albert Jackson from the USA. The result is unfortunately disappointing for fans of interstellar travel: it cannot work the way Robert Bussard, the inventor of this propulsion system, thought it up in 1960. The analysis has now been published in the scientific journal Acta Astronautica.

“The idea is definitely worth investigating,” says Prof. Peter Schattschneider. “In interstellar space, there is highly diluted gas, mainly hydrogen — about one atom per cubic centimeter. If you were to collect the hydrogen in front of the spacecraft, like in a magnetic funnel, with the help of huge magnetic fields, you could use it to run a fusion reactor and accelerate the spacecraft.” In 1960, Robert Bussard published a scientific paper about this. Nine years later, such a magnetic field was described theoretically for the first time. “Since then, the idea has not only excited science fiction fans, but has also generated a great deal of interest in the technical and scientific astronautics community,” says Peter Schattschneider.

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