coordinates and follows a continuous world line. However,
when there is more than one apparatus, there is no
role for the private proper times that might be attached
to the observers’ world lines. Therefore a physical situation
involving several observers in relative motion cannot
be described by a wave function with a relativistic
transformation law (Aharonov and Albert, 1981; Peres,
1995, and references therein). This should not be surprising
because a wave function is not a physical object.
It is only a tool for computing the probabilities of objective
macroscopic events.
Einstein’s [special] principle of relativity asserts that there are
no privileged inertial frames.
[Comment #3: Einstein's general principle of relativity is that there are no privileged local accelerating frames (AKA LNIFs). In addition, Einstein's equivalence principle is that one can always find a local inertial frame (LIF) coincident with a LNIF (over a small enough region of 4D space-time) in which to a good approximation, Newton's 1/r^2 force is negligible "Einstein's happiest thought" Therefore, Newton's universal "gravity force" is a purely inertial, fictitious, pseudo-force exactly like Coriolis, centrifugal and Euler forces that are artifacts of the proper acceleration of the detector having no real effect on the test particle being measured by the detector. The latter assumes no rigid constraint between detector and test particle. For example a test particle clamped to the edge r of a uniformly slowly rotating disk will have a real EM force of constraint that is equal to m w x w x r.]
This does not imply the
necessity or even the possibility of using manifestly symmetric
four-dimensional notations. This is not a peculiarity
of relativistic quantum mechanics. Likewise, in classical
canonical theories, time has a special role in the
equations of motion.
The relativity principle is extraordinarily restrictive.
For example, in ordinary classical mechanics with a finite
number of degrees of freedom, the requirement that
the canonical coordinates q have the meaning of positions,
so that particle trajectories q(t) transform like
four-dimensional world lines, implies that these lines
consist of straight segments. Long-range interactions are
forbidden; there can be only contact interactions between
A series of quantum experiments shows that measurements performed in the future can influence the present. Does that mean the universe has a destiny—and the laws of physics pull us inexorably toward our prewritten fate?
An intervention has two consequences. One is the acquisition
of information by means of an apparatus that
produces a record. This is the ‘‘measurement.’’ Its outcome,
which is in general unpredictable, is the output of
the intervention. The other consequence is a change of
the environment in which the quantum system will
evolve after completion of the intervention. For example,
the intervening apparatus may generate a new
Hamiltonian that depends on the recorded result. In particular,
classical signals may be emitted for controlling
the execution of further interventions. These signals are,
of course, limited to the velocity of light.
The experimental protocols that we consider all start
in the same way, with the same initial state ... , and the
first intervention is the same. However, later stages of
the experiment may involve different types of interventions,
possibly with different spacetime locations, depending
on the outcomes of the preceding events. Yet,
assuming that each intervention has only a finite number
of outcomes, there is for the entire experiment only a
finite number of possible records. (Here, the word
record means the complete list of outcomes that occurred
during the experiment. We do not want to use the
word history, which has acquired a different meaning in
the writings of some quantum theorists.)
Each one of these records has a definite probability in
the statistical ensemble. In the laboratory, experimenters
can observe its relative frequency among all the records
that were obtained; when the number of records tends
to infinity, this relative frequency is expected to tend to
the true probability. The aim of theory is to predict the
probability of each record, given the inputs of the various
interventions (both the inputs that are actually controlled
by the local experimenter and those determined
by the outputs of earlier interventions). Each record is
objective: everyone agrees on what happened (e.g.,
which detectors clicked). Therefore, everyone agrees on
what the various relative frequencies are, and the theoretical
probabilities are also the same for everyone.
Interventions are localized in spacetime, but quantum
systems are pervasive. In each experiment, irrespective
of its history, there is only one quantum system, which
may consist of several particles or other subsystems, created
or annihilated at the various interventions. Note
that all these properties still hold if the measurement
outcome is the absence of a detector click. It does not
matter whether this is due to an imperfection of the detector
or to a probability less than 1 that a perfect detector
would be excited. The state of the quantum system
does not remain unchanged. It has to change to
respect unitarity. The mere presence of a detector that
could have been excited implies that there has been an
interaction between that detector and the quantum system.
Even if the detector has a finite probability of remaining
in its initial state, the quantum system correlated
to the latter acquires a different state (Dicke,
1981). The absence of a click, when there could have
been one, is also an event.
…
The measuring process involves not only the physical
system under study and a measuring apparatus (which
together form the composite system C) but also their
environment, which includes unspecified degrees of freedom
of the apparatus and the rest of the world. These
unknown degrees of freedom interact with the relevant
ones, but they are not under the control of the experimenter
and cannot be explicitly described. Our partial
ignorance is not a sign of weakness. It is fundamental. If
everything were known, acquisition of information
would be a meaningless concept.
A complete description of C involves both macroscopic
and microscopic variables. The difference between
them is that the environment can be considered as
adequately isolated from the microscopic degrees of
freedom for the duration of the experiment and is not
influenced by them, while the environment is not isolated
from the macroscopic degrees of freedom. For example,
if there is a macroscopic pointer, air molecules bounce
from it in a way that depends on the position of that
pointer. Even if we can neglect the Brownian motion of
a massive pointer, its influence on the environment leads
to the phenomenon of decoherence, which is inherent to
the measuring process.
An essential property of the composite system C,
which is necessary to produce a meaningful measurement,
is that its states form a finite number of orthogonal
subspaces which are distinguishable by the observer.
[My comment #7: This is not the case for Aharonov's weak measurements where
<A>weak = <history|A|destiny>/<history|destiny>
Nor is it true when Alice's orthogonal micro-states are entangled with Bob's far away distinguishably non-orthogonal macro-quantum Glauber coherent and possibly squeezed states.
In physics, in quantum mechanics, a coherent state is the specific quantum state of the quantum harmonic oscillator whose dynamics most closely resembles the ...
As if to add insult to injury, he then went on to "remote view" the interior of the apparatus, .... Figure 6 - Left to right: Christopher Green, Pat Price, and Hal Puthoff.
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Puthoff, Hal, Success Story, Scientology Advanced Org Los Angeles (AOLA) special... H. E. Puthoff, CIA-Initiated Remote Viewing At Stanford Research Institute, ...
Among some of the ideas that Puthoff supported regarding remote viewing was the ...by Russell Targ and Hal Puthoff at Stanford Research Institute in the 1970s ...
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Dr. Harold E. Puthoff is Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin. A theoretical and experimental physicist specializing in fundamental ...
On Sep 4, 2013, at 9:06 AM, JACK SARFATTI <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.> wrote:
Peres here is only talking about Von Neumann's strong measurements not
Aharonov's weak measurements.
Standard texbooks on quantum mechanics
tell you that observable quantities are represented by
Hermitian operators, that their possible values are the
eigenvalues of these operators, and that the probability
of detecting eigenvalue a, corresponding to eigenvector
|a> |<a|psi>|2, where |psi> is the (pure) state of the
quantum system that is observed. With a bit more sophistication
to include mixed states, the probability can
be written in a general way <a|rho|a> …
This is nice and neat, but it does not describe what
happens in real life. Quantum phenomena do not occur
in Hilbert space; they occur in a laboratory. If you visit a
real laboratory, you will never find Hermitian operators
there. All you can see are emitters (lasers, ion guns, synchrotrons,
and the like) and appropriate detectors. In
the latter, the time required for the irreversible act of
amplification (the formation of a microscopic bubble in
a bubble chamber, or the initial stage of an electric discharge)
is extremely brief, typically of the order of an
atomic radius divided by the velocity of light. Once irreversibility
has set in, the rest of the amplification process
is essentially classical. It is noteworthy that the time and
space needed for initiating the irreversible processes are
incomparably smaller than the macroscopic resolution
of the detecting equipment.
The experimenter controls the emission process and
observes detection events. The theorist’s problem is to
predict the probability of response of this or that detector,
for a given emission procedure. It often happens
that the preparation is unknown to the experimenter,
and then the theory can be used for discriminating between
different preparation hypotheses, once the detection
outcomes are known.
<Screen Shot 2013-09-04 at 8.57.50 AM.png>
Many physicists, perhaps a majority, have an intuitive,
realistic worldview and consider a quantum state as a
physical entity. Its value may not be known, but in principle
the quantum state of a physical system would be
well defined. However, there is no experimental evidence
whatsoever to support this naive belief. On the
contrary, if this view is taken seriously, it may lead to
bizarre consequences, called ‘‘quantum paradoxes.’’
These so-called paradoxes originate solely from an incorrect
interpretation of quantum theory, which is thoroughly
pragmatic and, when correctly used, never yields
two contradictory answers to a well-posed question. It is
only the misuse of quantum concepts, guided by a pseudorealistic
philosophy, that leads to paradoxical results.
[My comment #2: Here is the basic conflict between epistemological vs ontological views of quantum reality.]
In this review we shall adhere to the view that r is
only a mathematical expression which encodes information
about the potential results of our experimental interventions.
The latter are commonly called
‘‘measurements’’—an unfortunate terminology, which
gives the impression that there exists in the real world
some unknown property that we are measuring. Even
the very existence of particles depends on the context of
our experiments. In a classic article, Mott (1929) wrote
‘‘Until the final interpretation is made, no mention
should be made of the a ray being a particle at all.’’
Drell (1978a, 1978b) provocatively asked ‘‘When is a
particle?’’ In particular, observers whose world lines are
accelerated record different numbers of particles, as will
be explained in Sec. V.D (Unruh, 1976; Wald, 1994).
1The theory of relativity did not cause as much misunderstanding
and controversy as quantum theory, because people
were careful to avoid using the same nomenclature as in nonrelativistic
physics. For example, elementary textbooks on
relativity theory distinguish ‘‘rest mass’’ from ‘‘relativistic
mass’’ (hard-core relativists call them simply ‘‘mass’’ and ‘‘energy’’).
2The ‘‘irreversible act of amplification’’ is part of quantum
folklore, but it is not essential to physics. Amplification is
needed solely to facilitate the work of the experimenter.
3Positive operators are those having the property that
^curuc&>0 for any state c. These operators are always Hermitian.
94 A. Peres and D. R. Terno: Quantum information and relativity theory
Rev. Mod.
On Sep 4, 2013, at 8:48 AM, JACK SARFATTI <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.> wrote:
Begin forwarded message:
From: JACK SARFATTI <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
Subject: Quantum information and relativity theory
Date: September 4, 2013 8:33:48 AM PDT
To: nick herbert <This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.>
He claims that Antony Valentini's signal non locality beyond orthodox quantum theory would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS, VOLUME 76, JANUARY 2004
Quantum information and relativity theory
Asher Peres
Department of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa, Israel
Daniel R. Terno
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 2W9
(Published 6 January 2004)
This article discusses the intimate relationship between quantum mechanics, information theory, and
relativity theory. Taken together these are the foundations of present-day theoretical physics, and
their interrelationship is an essential part of the theory. The acquisition of information from a
quantum system by an observer occurs at the interface of classical and quantum physics. The authors
review the essential tools needed to describe this interface, i.e., Kraus matrices and
positive-operator-valued measures. They then discuss how special relativity imposes severe
restrictions on the transfer of information between distant systems and the implications of the fact that
quantum entropy is not a Lorentz-covariant concept. This leads to a discussion of how it comes about
that Lorentz transformations of reduced density matrices for entangled systems may not be
completely positive maps. Quantum field theory is, of course, necessary for a consistent description of
interactions. Its structure implies a fundamental tradeoff between detector reliability and
localizability. Moreover, general relativity produces new and counterintuitive effects, particularly
when black holes (or, more generally, event horizons) are involved. In this more general context the
authors discuss how most of the current concepts in quantum information theory may require a
reassessment.
CONTENTS
I. Three Inseparable Theories 93
A. Relativity and information 93
B. Quantum mechanics and information 94
C. Relativity and quantum theory 95
D. The meaning of probability 95
E. The role of topology 96
F. The essence of quantum information 96
II. The Acquisition of Information 97
A. The ambivalent quantum observer 97
B. The measuring process 98
C. Decoherence 99
D. Kraus matrices and positive-operator-valued
measures (POVM’s) 99
E. The no-communication theorem 100
III. The Relativistic Measuring Process 102
A. General properties 102
B. The role of relativity 103
C. Quantum nonlocality? 104
D. Classical analogies 105
IV. Quantum Entropy and Special Relativity 105
A. Reduced density matrices 105
B. Massive particles 105
C. Photons 107
D. Entanglement 109
E. Communication channels 110
V. The Role of Quantum Field Theory 110
A. General theorems 110
B. Particles and localization 111
C. Entanglement in quantum field theory 112
D. Accelerated detectors 113
VI. Beyond Special Relativity 114
A. Entanglement revisited 115
B. The thermodynamics of black holes 116
C. Open problems 118
Acknowledgments and Apologies 118
Appendix A: Relativistic State Transformations 119
Appendix B: Black-Hole Radiation 119
References 120
I. THREE INSEPARABLE THEORIES
Quantum theory and relativity theory emerged at the
beginning of the twentieth century to give answers to
unexplained issues in physics: the blackbody spectrum,
the structure of atoms and nuclei, the electrodynamics of
moving bodies. Many years later, information theory
was developed by Claude Shannon (1948) for analyzing
the efficiency of communication methods. How do these
seemingly disparate disciplines relate to each other? In
this review, we shall show that they are inseparably
linked.
A. Relativity and information
Common presentations of relativity theory employ
fictitious observers who send and receive signals. These
‘‘observers’’ should not be thought of as human beings,
but rather as ordinary physical emitters and detectors.
Their role is to label and locate events in spacetime. The
speed of transmission of these signals is bounded by
c—the velocity of light—because information needs a
material carrier, and the latter must obey the laws of
physics. Information is physical (Landauer, 1991).
[My comment #1: Indeed information is physical. Contrary to Peres, in Bohm's theory Q is also physical but not material (be able), consequently one can have entanglement negentropy transfer without be able material propagation of a classical signal. I think Peres makes a fundamental error here.]
However, the mere existence of an upper bound on
the speed of propagation of physical effects does not do
justice to the fundamentally new concepts that were introduced
by Albert Einstein (one could as well imagine
communications limited by the speed of sound, or that
of the postal service). Einstein showed that simultaneity
had no absolute meaning, and that distant events might
have different time orderings when referred to observers
in relative motion. Relativistic kinematics is all about
information transfer between observers in relative motion.
Classical information theory involves concepts such as
the rates of emission and detection of signals, and the
noise power spectrum. These variables have well defined