Text Size
Facebook Twitter More...
I propose a new generalized Carnot Engine efficiency formula Eq 2 to replace Eq 1 below.

i.e. use 1/T* = 1/T + 1/X in Carnot's formula for max efficiency rather than T* = T + X

The analogy above is is to Kirchoff's circuit laws for resistance/impedance. Eq 1 is for a series connection. The above is for a parallel processing connection that seems more natural because the different intensive parameters are orthogonal dimensions in abstract thermodynamic phase space. Also if there are order parameters from spontaneous symmetry breakdown or from topology then there will also be Berry phase shifts.

Remember TdS and Xidx^i all have same dimensions as energy, so the dimensions must be consistent in the sums.


On Feb 9, 2012, at 12:01 AM, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." data-scaytid="1">This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. wrote:

Hi Jack,
 
Just to clarify one point:
 
The Navy experimentalists did not allege "anomalous energy output".  They reported as much as 50% discrepancies in the (d and d*) Maxwell relations:
 
http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v109/i7/p07A922_s1?isAuthorized=no
 
The University of Maryland experimentalists reported an isothermal anomalous energy output (mechanical work output > magnetic work input) associated with Maxwell (d and d*) discrepancies:
 
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SMaS...20g5008Y
 


"If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations—then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation—well these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation." - Eddington

This is admittedly half-baked as I have not digested the details of Gerry Pellegrini's reports of the US Navy work on what seems to be anomalous energy production in one-dimensional magnetostrictive filaments in materials. Gerry worries that the Second Law of Thermodynamics seems to be violated because of work output under isothermal conditions in a closed cycle in which allegedly dissipation is not significant. This is a bit like the cold fusion claims.

1) there is still little understanding of far-from-thermal equilibrium physics. It's pretty much like quantum gravity and string theory really.
We have fluctuation-dissipation theorems, but they are only near equilibrium. This is analogous to first order perturbation theory of a small huv spin 2 tensor field on a non-dynamical Minkowski space-time as in Feynman's CIT Gravity Lectures. We also have Haken's work on pumped laser type systems, but none of that seems applicable to the alleged US Navy "over-unity"? data.

2) assuming that the Navy data is quasi-static reversible so that the Carnot heat engine idea is a reasonable place to start. We know that the maximal efficiency in a closed cycle (for ignorable irreversibility) in a closed cycle

MAX efficiency = (Work Output)/(Energy Input) = 1 - T(output)/T(input)



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnot_cycle

Therefore, if the condition is isothermal we get ZERO. In fact, the Navy guys seem to be getting something positive out, if I understand Gerry right?

OK first we have conjugate variables in thermo T (absolute Kelvin) temperature is intensive conjugate to extensive entropy

intensive pressure conjugate to extensive volume - this extends to electromagnetic properties.

Then we have for example for the differential of internal energy of the material



Here the Xi are the generalized forces corresponding to the external variables xi

X are intensive x are extensive

I conjecture that in the general case we have a higher dimensional space in which the P-V plane is a slice.
 
Carnot's formula then generalizes to

      Eq 1

In Gerry's case in particular



Why permeability of free space? Should it not be permeability of the material that could be meta-material? Similarly can add for electrostriction, for piezo electromagnetism etc.



If the above formula I have concocted out of thin air, stolen from the future like Jack and the Beanstalk ;-) is crazy enough to be true then  we see:

1) no problem when the two absolute temperatures T are the same.

2) the fraction on the RHS can be negative. This would result in apparent over unity sucking out the internal energy of the material so there is no contradiction with energy conservation first law of thermo. The material would self-destruct in such a case undergoing some kind of dramatic phase transition.

3) the fraction can be negatively large causing the efficiency itself to go negative. What does that mean? Well, it might mean exotic matter negative energy output needed to make warp drive and wormhole star gates?

As I said this is all very half-baked at this point.

Category: MyBlog

Categories ...

't Hooft 100 Year Star Ship Abner Shimony accelerometers action-reaction principle Aephraim Sternberg Alan Turing Albert Einstein Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer American Institute of Physics Andrija Puharich Anthony Valentin Anton Zeilinger Antony Valentini anyon Apple Computer Artificial Intelligence Asher Peres Back From The Future Basil Hiley Bell's theorem Ben Affleck Ben Libet Bernard Carr Bill Clinton black body radiation Black Hole black hole firewall black hole information paradox black holes Bohm brain waves Brian Josephson Broadwell Cambridge University Carnot Heat Engine Central Intelligence Agency CIA Clive Prince closed time like curves coherent quantum state Consciousness conservation laws Cosmic Landscape Cosmological Constant cosmology CTC cyber-bullying Dancing Wu Li Masters Dark Energy Dark Matter DARPA Daryl Bem David Bohm David Deutsch David Gross David Kaiser David Neyland David Tong de Sitter horizon Dean Radin Deepak Chopra delayed choice Demetrios A. Kalamidas Demetrios Kalamidas Dennis Sciama Destiny Matrix Dick Bierman Doppler radars E8 group Einstein's curved spacetime gravity Einstein's happiest thought electromagnetism Eli Cartan EMP Nuclear Attack entanglement signals ER=EPR Eric Davis Ernst Mach ET Eternal Chaotic Inflation evaporating black holes Facebook Faster-Than-Light Signals? fictitious force firewall paradox flying saucers FQXi Frank Tipler Frank Wilczek Fred Alan Wolf Free Will G.'t Hooft Garrett Moddel Gary Zukav gauge theory general relativity Geometrodynamics Gerard 't Hooft Giancarlo Ghirardi God Goldstone theorem gravimagnetism gravity Gravity - the movie gravity gradiometers gravity tetrads Gravity Waves Gregory Corso gyroscopes hacking quantum cryptographs Hagen Kleinert Hal Puthoff Hawking radiation Heisenberg Henry Stapp Herbert Gold Higgs boson Higgs field hologram universe Horizon How the Hippies Saved Physics I.J. Good ICBMs Igor Novikov inertial forces inertial navigation Inquisition Internet Iphone Iran Isaac Newton Israel Jack Sarfatti Jacques Vallee James F. Woodward James Woodward JASON Dept of Defense Jeffrey Bub Jesse Ventura Jim Woodward John Archibald Wheeler John Baez John Cramer John S. Bell Ken Peacock Kip Thorne Kornel Lanczos La Boheme Laputa Large Hadron Collider Lenny Susskind Leonard Susskind Levi-Civita connection LHC CERN libel Louis de Broglie Lubos Motl LUX Lynn Picknett M-Theory Mach's Principle Mae Jemison Making Starships and Star Gates Martin Rees Mathematical Mind MATRIX Matter-AntiMatter Asymmetry Max Tegmark Menas Kafatos Michael Persinger Michael Towler microtubules Milky way MIT MOSSAD multiverse NASA Nick Bostrum Nick Herbert Nobel Prize nonlocality Obama organized-stalking Origin of Inertia P. A. M. Dirac P.K.Dick P.W. Anderson Paranormal parapsychology Paul Werbos Perimeter Institute Petraeus Physical Review Letters Physics Today Post-Quantum Physics pre-Big Bang precognition presponse PSI WARS Psychic Repression qualia Quantum Chromodynamics quantum computers quantum entanglement quantum field theory quantum gravity Quantum Information Theory Quantum Theory RAF Spitfires Ray Chiao Red Chinese Remote Viewing retrocausality Reviews of Modern Physics Richard Feynman Richard P. Feynman Rindler effect Robert Anton Wilson Robert Bigelow Roger Penrose rotating black holes Roy Glauber Rupert Sheldrake Russell Targ Ruth Elinor Kastner S-Matrix Sagnac effect Sam Ting Sanford Underground Research Facility Sarfatti Lectures in Physics Scientific American Second Law of Thermodynamics Seth Lloyd signal nonlocality Skinwalker Ranch social networks space drive space-time crystal SPECTRA - UFO COMPUTER spontaneous broken symmetry SRI Remote Viewing Experiments Stanford Physics Stanford Research Institute Star Gate Star Ship Star Trek Q Stargate Starship Stephen Hawking Steven Weinberg stretched membrane string theory strong force gluons Stuart Hameroff superconducting meta-material supersymmetry symmetries telepathy Templeton The Guardian Thought Police time crystal time travel topological computers Topological Computing torsion UFO Unitarity unitary S-Matrix false? Unruh effect Uri Geller VALIS virtual particle Virtual Reality Warp Drive weak force Wheeler-Feynman WIMP WMAP WMD world crystal lattice wormhole Yakir Aharonov Yuri Milner