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Feb 08

Dark Energy Explained for Dunces

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 
The mystery of dark energy is explained by the hologram cosmological principle trivially and it shows how stupid we all are, me included, that it took this long.

I have generally shown that the Unruh temperature at any horizon is for static LNIF detectors (lowered on a cable, analog to Rindler observers) at distance d from the horizon (e.g. Taylor series in first order for dS metric g00 = 1 - /\r^2 distance d from our retro-causal post-selected future horizon).

kBTHorizon  ~ hc/(geometric mean of horizon radius with d)

If the smallest d is the Planck length Lp

kBTHorizon ~ hc/(LpRH)^1/2

The Stephan-Boltzmann Law is that the black body energy density ~ T^4


(kBTHorizon)^4 ~ hc/(LpRH)^2

The RHS is the observed dark energy density.

Feb 06

Dr. Jonathan Vos Post on Crackpottery

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 

On Feb 5, 2011, at 12:35 PM, Jonathan Post wrote:

I plan to publish everything.  Right now my inventory is backlogged
with the 4 novels that I wrote in 2010, and the 20 to 30 shorter
fictions circulating through the desks and virtual desks of the major

So let's try this experiment

You can post the story on your blog, with an explicit notice NOT to
redistribute it in hardcopy or electronically.  That is, for your
readers to read, and provide feedback.

On Sat, Feb 5, 2011 at 10:34 AM, JACK SARFATTI <sarfatti@pacbell.net> wrote:
ok but you plan to publish this  - keep it confidential right?
On Feb 5, 2011, at 12:36 AM, Jonathan Post wrote:

Slight tweaks, as suggested by my son Andrew; and typos corrected.


By Jonathan Vos Post
Partial Draft 3.0, 2800 words, 12 pages
5 February 2011, 9 pages, 2,050 words [replaces Draft 2.0, 2700 words, 11 pages
31 January 2011, 9 pages, 2,050 words; 2.1 typos corrected from 1.0 of 28 Jan]

The richest man in the world fell in love with the most beautiful
crackpot.  Then she vanished.  As if she fell off the Earth.

The richest man, a craggy-jawed American whose face was known to
media-watchers everywhere, hired the best detectives, cops, military
police, crime scene investigators, spies, and skip-tracers.  No dice.
She was gone. Cluelessly. Instantly the coldest of cold trails.
He took lovers, he retreated into a 48-hour artificially-induced coma,
he bought whores, he wined and dined three ex-wives, he indulged in
orgies, he hired and fired three people on his boards of directors who
annoyed him, he corrupted underage girls, he experimented with men and
other genders.  Nothing worked.  He just couldn’t get her out of his
mind. Whenever he closed his eyes, he could still see her violet

So he did something unprecedented.

Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, giving orders from the Peacock Throne,
erected many splendid monuments, most famously Taj Mahal at Agra,
built as a tomb for his wife, Empress Mumtaz Mahal, beginning in 1632,
one year after her death.

The richest man in the world, after the experts worked around the
clock and submitted the reports he’d demanded, built the Institute for
Crackpot Studies. This was built in memory of his missing crackpot
lover, beginning six months, six days, and six hours after the last
time that he had seen her. Between its Olive and Cypress tree-lined
boulevards and perfumed floral gardens, it was notable for its Great
Crackpot Library flanked by half-scale sphinxes, its tetrahelix
clock-tower with a 13-hour clock, its gold-plated observatory dome,
and its many state-of-the-art laboratories to study antigravity, time
travel, invisibility, extrasensory perception, ghosts, immortality,
alchemy, astrology, conspiracy theories, unidentified flying objects,
and a hundred other willow-the-wisps.

He hired the best science administrators, astronomers, bibliographers,
biologists, chemists, debunkers, dowsers, editors, escape artists, and
experimentalists.  He hit the morning talk shows in a dozen countries.
He hired fakirs, fantasists, generalists, gurus, historians, and
hypnotists.  He put wanted ads in a thousand newspapers. He had his
staff interview, rank, and hire the world’s leading mentalists,
neurologists, occultists, psychologists, rainmakers, remote viewers,
science fiction writers, skeptics, stage magicians, theologians,
theoreticians, yogins, Zwicky-ideocosmists, and anyone else his
appointed trustees said was needed.  He could lure anyone away from
anywhere, with offers they couldn’t refuse.

The Institute funded every X-Files fan club, every Fringe fan club,
paid for the touring company of the Spider-Man musical, ran a hundred
public service announcements with William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy as
narrators, co-sponsored the San Diego Comic-Con, and awarded
“half-baked idea of the year awards”.

Full-time poets were employed at court to extol the beauty of the
Empress of the Peacock throne, who bore twenty-one children. Seven
died in childbirth. Mumtaz, give birth to her fourteenth-surviving
child in Burhanpur in 1631. This was too much for her system and she
passed away. Emperor Jahan I went into hiding for a year, so stricken
by grief, that his hair turned pure-white. He planned on a pure white
monument, and then, across the reflecting pools, a pure black mirror
image.  He died before the worker broke ground on the black one.
The Institute for Crackpot Studies had an orchestra and gleeclub, and
a theme song.

They All Laughed, Lyrics by George Gershwin, melody by Ira Gershwin:

“The odds were a hundred to one against me
The world thought the heights were too high to climb
But people from Missouri never incensed me
Oh, I wasn’t a bit concerned
For from histry I had learned
How many, many times the worm had turned.”

Many conferences of scientific organizations have a “crackpot session”
where all the questionable interdisciplinary paper authors are stuffed
into one room, and not allowed to contaminate the conventional
peer-reviewed establishment. After all, crackpots can pay registration
fees and annual dues out of pocket, and some lucky ones had
corporations or universities or granting agencies that reimbursed
them.The Great Crackpot Library had every Proceedings of every
conference in the world that ever had a “crackpot session.”

In the typical crackpot session on Physics or Astronomy, there were
always Gravity Gonzos.  They debated at length the same questions
every time. Does gravity pull, or push, or does the universe suck? Is
gravity the way that Isaac Newton said, with metaphysically absurd
action at a distance? Is gravity the way that Albert Einstein said,
based on some impossible warping of space-time? How fast does gravity
move, the speed of light, or infinitely fast?  Is there gravitational
radiation? If so, is it electromagnetic, stringy, dipole, quadrupole,
five-dimensional, mixed with a Fifth Force, or none of those? Are
there gravitons?  Do gravitons attract each other?  Do two parallel
beams of light attract each other, repel each other, or does that
depend on whether they are going in the same or opposite directions?
Is the Moon spiraling in, or out? Does gravity get stronger or weaker
over time? Is gravity a force, or a flow? Do you idiots understand
that I alone am right, and you are all wasting time?

In the First Annual Report of the Institute for Crackpot Studies one
chapter was on classification of crackpots.  There was one each on
preliminary classification of crackpot theories. There are, the report
said, three broad categories of crackpots, and there is nonzero
mobility between them. Although that phrase is a little crackpotty

(1) Some people have psychiatric need to attack an intellectual father
figure -- Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, George Cantor.  It is more
important for them to think they’re Oedipally proving the father
wrong, than to contribute anything worthy.  Anti-Einsteinians,
Anti-Darwinist, Anti-Cantorians. Their “proofs” almost invariably
attack straw men, rather than theories as published, and lack rigor.
It is nearly impossible to get these people to see what their nemesis
genuinely wrote, in context.  Einstein admitted in 1906 that his 1905
Special Relativity was wrong, and set to work on General Relativity.
Darwin didn’t know Mendel, and one should read about the Neodarwinian

“They all laughed at Christopher Columbus
When he said the world was round
They all laughed when Edison recorded sound
They all laughed at Wilbur and his brother
When they said that man could fly
They told Marconi
Wireless was a phony
It’s the same old cry.”

At the start of each new year, the richest man in the world made a
personal appearance, his salt-and-pepper hair whiter than the year
before, congratulated the entire personnel of the Institute for
Crackpot Studies, told them to keep up the good work, and reminded
them that this all started because he’d fell in love with the most
beautiful crackpot in the world, and dreamed of her every night.

By the time the Second Annual Report was published, the Institute for
Crackpot Studies had earned back half its endowment.  Studying why hot
water in ice cube trays froze faster than cold water had led to the
best-selling small refrigerators in the Free World.

(2) There are people classified as crackpots who actually make
interesting, original, and testable hypotheses. Suppose 1% of the
anti-establishment figures do have an idea worthy of serious
consideration? Diamonds scattered in the parking lot gravel.
Cantor himself stated quite clearly: “I realise that in this
undertaking I place myself in a certain opposition to views widely
held concerning the mathematical infinite and to opinions frequently
defended on the nature of numbers.” At the end of May 1884 Cantor had
the first recorded attack of depression. He recovered after a few
weeks but now seemed less confident. He wrote to Mittag-Leffler: “I
don't know when I shall return to the continuation of my scientific
work. At the moment I can do absolutely nothing with it, and limit
myself to the most necessary duty of my lectures; how much happier I
would be to be scientifically active, if only I had the necessary
mental freshness.”  Cantor was arguably crazy at the end of his life,
claiming that he didn’t need proofs because God told him the answers
(but so did Ramanujan, for his village Goddess, and Ramanujan was
decades ahead of everyone else).

For example, a retired Aerospace Engineer told the author of this
chapter his New Aether Theory. “First, since he was buying me dinner,
I listened. Second, I verified that he had read the serious papers of
Aether experts pre-1890, and of the Michelson–Morley experiment as
performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now
Case Western Reserve University. Then I asked HOW the Earth could
freely move through something trillions of times more rigid than

“He said: ‘The luminiferous Aether is a Superfluid.’ I don’t believe
he’d read Dr. Jack Sarfatti’s work on a Supersolid Aether, but at
least this was a testable, falsifiable hypothesis, and thus the start
of real Science. We do know something about quantization of vorticity
in superfluids.  Let’s do the experiment, eh?”

By the time the Third Annual Report was published, the Institute for
Crackpot Studies had broken even.  Its sponsorship of the IgNobel
Prizes had been a great investment.  Among other lucrative products,
the device that translated dog barks into the major human languages
had sold tens of millions of copies.  The app for translating baby
cries into adult language had saved numerous lives.

“They laughed at me wanting you
Said I was reaching for the moon
But oh, you came through
Now they’ll have to change their tune
They all said we never could be happy
They laughed at us and how!
But ho, ho, ho!
Who’s got the last laugh now?”

(3), continued the First Annual Report, “I am therefore willing to
listen with an open mind to people considered crackpots, because I
think that (2) above is, as some of our scholars suggest, better
called ‘Fringe.’  Mind you, I'm usually not the guy to build the
experiment.  I often suggest the conceptual design of the experiment.
I’m a Theoretical Mad Scientist, like Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén,
Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten, or Max Tegmark. The Fringe needs to
collaborate with Applied Mad Scientists, like Michael Faraday,
Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz, Nikola Tesla, Linus Pauling,
Jr., or Segway inventor Dean L. Kamen. Sadly, they never listen to my
replies as carefully as I listened to their pet Theory, and not one
has gone on to test their ideas with my tests, either as
gedankenexperiment nor with real hardware.  Yet I don’t give up.
Someone castigated and rejected may in fact have the basis for a
Stardrive. Let History determine that.”
By the time the Fourth Annual Report was published, the Institute for
Crackpot Studies was a billion dollars in the black. Half the
commercial flights into orbit used the improved rocket fuels, engine
designs, and guidance, navigation, and control which used a startling
discovery that came from dowsers and the fastest Rubik’s cube solvers.

The wings of the Library included the world’s most comprehensive
collections of documents on these categories and more:

ALIENS ON EARTH: they came from outer space, molest our cattle, and
abduct our women;
ALTERNATE WORLDS: history might have happened differently, and if you
don’t believe me, listen to Al Gore’s Inaugural Address;
ANTIGRAVITY: what goes up may not come down, and let me sell you a
share in my Cavorite factory;
BAMBI’S CHILDREN: animals who speak, think, or act human, and here are
tickets to the re-remake of Planet of the Apes;
BEAM ME UP: matter transmission, techno-teleportation, and can you
teleport just me but leave my common cold viruses behind?
BEYOND THE FIELDS WE KNOW: magical world unconnected to ours, since in
an infinite multiverse there must be worlds where magic works;
CITIES OF THE FUTURE: bigger, better, and more astonishing urban visions;
CLONES: chimeras, and genetic engineering, especially of people;
CYBER PUNK: near-future tales of hackers and cyberspace;
DYSTOPIA: really, really bad futures (opposite of “Utopia”);
ECOLOGY: books, stories, and films about Ecology, Biology, and Gaia;
EXTRA-SENSORY PERCEPTION: telepathy, psi, other paths to the mind;
FASTER THAN LIGHT: impossibly fast travel, beyond the Einstein
barrier; and see what this report says about Anti-Einsteinians;
FEMINISM and gender-change;
HARD SCIENCE FICTION: based on real science & engineering;
HEROIC FANTASY: also known as “Swords & Sorcery”;
HORROR: that old black magic, the really scary stuff; and maybe you
don’t need magic or demons; maybe the heat death of the universe is
horror enough; see the H.P. Lovecraft appendix;
IMMORTALITY: Those who live forever, or try to;
INVISIBILITY: Mostly about people who can’t be seen;
LOST LANDS/LOST RACE: neoprimitive place/people discovered;
MATHEMATICS: Fantasy and Science Fiction about Mathematics, circle-squaring;
MYTHOLOGY: Mythology and Science Fiction or Fantasy about Religion;
POLITICS: science fiction about social and political concerns;
SEX: love, love potions, science fiction authors who also write erotica;
SPACE OPERA: battles between planets and stars;
SPACE TRAVEL: rockets to asteroids, moons, planets, stars;
SUPERMEN: extra powers make characters more than human;
THEOLOGY: Science Fiction or Fantasy about Religion ;
THERE AND BACK AGAIN: leave our world for a more magical one; and
maybe return, as in The Lion the Witch and the Wardrobe;
TIME TRAVEL: time machines, travel to the past or the future;
TV and MOVIE: books spun-off from television series or sc-fi films;
UNDER THE SEA: submarines, undersea cities, underwater living
UNICORNS IN THE GARDEN: magic events within our mundane world; see
also: miracle;
UTOPIA: Fictional and Nonfictional glimpses of an ideal future;
WORLD COMES TO AN END: no more civilization, or people, or worse...;
YOU CAN TELL A BOOK BY ITS COVER: science fiction, fantasy, horror.

      They had, actually, the second largest library of arcana and the
occult, but only because the Vatican had been at it much longer. Also,
it took a while to pay the bribes needed to keep books bound in human

“They all laughed at Rockefeller center
Now they’re fighting to get in
They all laughed at Whitney and his cotton gin
They all laughed at Fulton and his steamboat
Hershey and his chocolate bar
Ford and his misery
Kept the laughers busy
That’s how people are.”

By the time the Fourth Annual Report was published, the Institute for
Crackpot Studies was two billion dollars in the black. A 9-year-old
girl in Borneo had come up with a new twist on a cat’s cradle pattern
her great-grandmother had taught her, and a suite of patents on
innovative loom design brought vast royalties from the Chinese
fabric-makers and clothing manufacturers who dominated that global

      And then, six years, six months, six days, and six hours after the
last time that he had seen her, the Chairman of the Trustees of the
Institute for Crackpot Studies ushered the missing the most beautiful
crackpot into the sea-side skyscraper-mansion of the richest man in
the world.

“Yes,” said the Chairman, “she vanished.  As if she fell off the
Earth. She had, in fact, fallen off the Earth.  We figured out how to
levitate back onto the Earth.”

“They laughed at me wanting you
Said it would be, ‘hello, goodbye.’
But oh, you came through
Now they’re eating humble pie
They all said we’d never get together
Darling, lets take a bow
For ho, ho, ho!
Who’s got the last laugh?
He, hee, hee!
Let’s at the past laugh
Ha, ha, ha!
Who’s got the last laugh now?”

And they lived happily ever after.  I mean really ever after.  Because
by the time the Thirteenth Annual Report was published, an old
Kashmiri folk medicine had turned out to be the key, when combined
with the latest Nanotechnology, to genuine immortality. It was
mind-numbingly expensive. But just within reach of one man.

Being the richest man in the world can break your heart.  But it can
also buy the ultimate happy ending. In another 66 years, the
antigravity aether-drive starship, named in her honor, left for the
gas giant planet orbiting Episilon Eridani, and the two debris belts
composed of rocky asteroids, 10.5 light years away, the third closest
star system visible to the naked eye, and returned within a week.

Ha, ha, ha!
Who’s got the last laugh now?”

===The End ===
1700-1929     1130-1219       0000-0032
28 Jan 2011   31 Jan 2011     5 Feb 2011              JVP\acp\crackpotdoc

Feb 04

Kepler 11 is 2000 light years from Earth

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 
according to Wikipedia

"Kepler-11 is a Sun-like star with a confirmed system of at least six exoplanets with short-period orbits, announced on 2 February, 2011.[2] It is in the direction of the constellation Cygnus and about 2,000 light years distant."

Will this be the first destination for our Starships using warp drive?

Feb 04

Do black holes really evaporate?

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 
PS However, if Ford & O' Connell are right in their detailed balance argument, then black holes and cosmic horizons seem not to evaporate - the Unruh radiation seems to be restricted to the near field. This would not affect my Wheeler-Feynman total absorber conjecture for our future de Sitter horizon, indeed it might even enhance it.

On Feb 2, 2011, at 4:00 PM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

That paper you sent that the Hawking radiation does not radiate to the far field makes a lot of sense and is actually consistent with the classical formula

static LNIF acceleration = (Newtonian theory g-acceleration)(gravity frequency shift)

= (-gradVNewton)(g00)^-1/2

However, they even say that the Unruh effect is locally real - essentially a near field effect so that the stretched membrane idea still work and my idea of the horizon as a real electron-positron plasma from the blueshift giving the Wheeler-Feynman total absorber on our future dS horizon is still gasping for breath - not dead yet, though there are still issues I am grappling with.

Is there Unruh radiation?
G. W. Ford
Department of Physics,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1120
R. F. O’Connell
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001
(Dated: February 1, 2008)
"It is generally accepted that a system undergoing uniform acceleration with respect to zero temperature
vacuum will thermalize at a finite temperature (the so-called Unruh temperature)
that is proportional to the acceleration. However, the question of whether or not the system
actually radiates is highly controversial"

Unruh effect is

T(r) = hg(r)/ckB

for the black body photon temperature seen by the accelerating detector that is not seen by the unaccelerating detector.

It may well be that the Hawking radiation never makes it to the far field.

The only counter-evidence that it does is the Pioneer Anomaly.

The basic rule for static LNIFs is

covariant acceleration = (Newton's g-acceleration)(gravity time dilation)

For example in de Sitter (dS) space the CLASSICAL calculation is

g(r) ~ c^2/\r(1 - /\r^2)^-1/2

for the observer at r = 0

note that g(0) = 0 which contradicts Hawking & Gibbons that it should be c^2/\^1/2

this is for Unruh-Hawking radiation from the past dS horizon - of course we don't have on in our real universe.

The only way to get their result is to put in their term ad-hoc as a zero point type of correction not seen in the classical calculation.

Similarly for the simplest black hole

g(r) ~ (c^2rs/r^2)(1 - rs/r)^-1/2

with the observer at r ---> infinity

again   g(infinity) = 0

so we do not see the Unruh-Hawking radiation at infinity in the far field - unless we stick in the term ad-hoc again.

On Feb 1, 2011, at 10:45 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

PS - the coordinates one uses don't matter in any physics theory obviously.
The physics of local gauge invariance in GR is that

1) the instantaneous relative velocity mapping between two un-accelerating inertial geodesic non-rotating coincident detectors measuring the same events is a redundant gauge transformation, i.e. Lorentz group SO1,3  LIF <--> LIF'

2) the instantaneous mapping between two accelerating non-inertial off-geodesic, possibly rotating coincident detectors measuring the same event is a redundant gauge transformation, i.e., T4(x) LNIF <--> LNIF'

so the above are 10 gauge transformations.

3) the instantaneous map between a LIF and a coincident LNIF , i.e. tetrad mapping  eI^u etc.

On Feb 1, 2011, at 10:35 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

On Feb 1, 2011, at 2:26 AM, Paul Zielinski wrote:

Bottom line here is that even in the tetrad formalism frame invariance under LNIF' -> LNIF''  transformations means
covariance wrt general coordinate transformations. So frame invariance still presents itself as coordinate covariance
even in the tetrad formulation of the GTR. The (non-orthonormal) LNIF basis vectors change in lockstep with the
coordinates to which they are aligned.

What difference does it make to the physics?
What mathematical distinctions do you mean?
Show the equations.
If you can't show the equations then the above words have no importance.
A local frame is basically a material detector
The arbitrary coordinates one uses don't matter.
The acceleration g-force does matter.
the relative velocity between coincident detectors does matter.
The invariants constructed in each frame for the same measured events by different coincident detectors are the objective reality of the theory.

So this brings us back to my original question: Can the interaction between accelerating detectors and the physical
vacuum that supposedly produces Unruh radiation, or particle pair production in the Gibbons-Hawking model for cosmological event horizons, be given a generally covariant formulation in the GTR? 
- Zielinski

 "the reality of the membrane can not be an invariant which all observers agree upon."

"An experiment of one kind will detect a quantum membrane, while
an experiment of another kind will not. However, no possibility exists for any observer to
know the results of both. Information involving the results of these two kinds of experiments
should be viewed as complementary in the sense of Bohr."
- Susskind

June 1993

The Stretched Horizon and Black Hole Complementarity
Leonard Susskind, L´arus Thorlacius,† and John Uglum‡

a “stretched horizon” or membrane description of the black hole, appropriate to a distant observer

the dissipative properties of the stretched horizon arise from a course graining of microphysical degrees of freedom that the horizon must possess.

"The reason I want to go back to the idea of an aether here is
because in these EPR experiments there is the suggestion that behind the
scenes something is going faster than light. Now, if all Lorentz frames are
equivalent, that also means that things can go backward in time." 
John Bell

This is precisely what I argued with Stan Deser, Sylvan Schweber ... at Brandeis
in 1961 after I read the David Inglis paper on the tau-theta puzzle in Rev Mod Phys
They discouraged me into looking into it as a possible dissertation basically saying
don't worry about the big philosophical problems, learn to calculate.
Ironically, they were trying to get David Bohm to come to Brandeis, but could not get a visa for him.

John Stewart Bell’s comments on a Preferred Reference Frame
Interview Excerpt (pp. 48-50):
The Ghost in the Atom, edited by P.C.W. Davies & J.R.Brown
(Cambridge U. Press, 1986)
Bell’s inequality is, as I understand it, is rooted in two assumptions: the first
is what we might call objective reality – the reality of the external world,
independent of observation; the second is locality, or non-separability, or no
faster-than-light signaling. Now, Aspect’s experiment appears to indicate
that one of these two has to go. Which of the two would you like to hang on
to? - Paul Davies

It introduces great problems, paradoxes of causality and so on. And so it’s
precisely to avoid these that I want to day there is a real causal sequence
which is defined by the aether. Now the mystery is, as with Lorentz and
Poincare, that this aether does not show up at the observational level. It is as
if there some kind of conspiracy that something is going on behind the
scenes which is not allowed to appear on the scenes. And I agree that that’s
extremely uncomfortable. - John S. Bell

c^2/rs + c^2rs/2r^2 in the Newtonian coefficient

in these units rs = 2m

Actually this is important, without these extra terms (i.e. c^2/\^1/2) the Hawking-Gibbons paper does not work.

However, for a black hole, I don't think the c^2/rs Hawking surface gravity term is there in the far field r ---> infinity unlike the Hawking-Gibbons effect since /\ is everywhere-when. So those guys who say the Unruh radiation is a misconception are correct!

On Jan 31, 2011, at 2:02 PM, Paul Zielinski wrote:

On Sun, Jan 30, 2011 at 10:43 PM, JACK SARFATTI <sarfatti@pacbell.net> wrote:

On Jan 30, 2011, at 8:32 PM, Paul Zielinski wrote:

Of course the Unruh phenomenon depends on the acceleration of the detector. The question is
whether such effects are objective and can be thus separated from frame artifacts.

The effect is objective.

In my model, which may not work BTW, the virtual electron-positron pair is the accelerating detector because its stuck at the event horizon, whether objective or observer-dependent won't matter.

You said it was "clamped at the event horizon".

Yes, that's my key idea. The virtual photons in the vacuum at g00 = 0 must accelerate in the local curvature field in order to hover at fixed r.

OK that makes sense. Here physical acceleration is acceleration relative to the relevant geodesics of the gravitational vacuum, as usual.


Even without Gibbons & Hawking, cosmological horizons depend on the position of the observer.


So even without G&H cosmological horizons are already observer dependent. So the G&H proposal is not such a big leap.

The black hole horizon is not observer-dependent in the same way that the cosmological de Sitter horizon is.

I'm arguing your side now!

In the de Sitter observer-dependent case the photon emitted from the observer

From the physical detector?

Try to be clear, use "past emitter" and "future absorber" on our future light cone for a Cramer transaction.

who is always at r = 0 when g00 = 1 - /\r^2 sees a stuck e+-e- pair (static LNIF) at distance H from its (the photon's) horizon.

And this is not a virtual pair? We are talking about actual particles?

Yes and yes - it's a self-consistent process. Starts as a virtual pair pulled into a real pair.

The accelerating static LNIF virtual pair is clamped at the horizon. It is the future absorber (at r = /\^-1/2) when either its acceleration Unruh temperature T > 2mc^2 pulls that virtual pair out of the vacuum to a real pair, or the photon blue shift (emitted at r = 0) itself that the accelerating virtual pair sees > 2mc^2.

In the de Sitter case

 [c^2(/\^1/2 + /\r^2) (1 - /\r^2)^-1/2)e1

note that the /\^1/2 term is like the hf/2 zero point term in the quantum oscillator - call it the horizon surface gravity Hawking radiation term missing from Einstein's classical calculation.

Or at least an analog thereof.

Is there a far-field Hawking radiation term for a black hole?

c^2/rs + c^2rs/2r^2 in the Newtonian coefficient

in these units rs = 2m

Actually this is important, without these extra terms the Hawking-Gibbons paper does not work.

However, I don't think the c^2/rs Hawking surface gravity term is there in the far field r ---> infinity unlike the Hawking-Gibbons effect since /\ is everywhere-when. So those guys who say the Unruh radiation is a misconception are correct!