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Begin forwarded message:

From: david mosier <daviddossier@yahoo.com>
Date: October 9, 2010 10:31:42 AM PDT
To: JACK SARFATTI <adastra1@me.com>
Subject: Physics Prof. resigns APS over global warming scam

Harold Lewis is Emeritus Professor of Physics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Here is his letter of resignation to Curtis G. Callan Jr, Princeton University, President of the American Physical Society.

[From the letter: It ( the global warming scam) is the greatest and most successful pseudoscientific fraud I have seen in my long life as a physicist.]

Harold Lewis is Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, former Chairman; Former member Defense Science Board, chmn of Technology panel; Chairman DSB study on Nuclear Winter; Former member Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Former member, President’s Nuclear Safety Oversight Committee; Chairman APS study on Nuclear Reactor Safety Chairman Risk Assessment Review Group; Co-founder and former Chairman of JASON; Former member USAF Scientific Advisory Board; Served in US Navy in WW II; books: Technological Risk (about, surprise, technological risk) and Why Flip a Coin (about decision making)


read the letter here

http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/jamesdelingpole/100058265/us-physics-professor-global-warming-is-the-greatest-and-most-successful-pseudoscientific-fraud-i-have-seen-in-my-long-life/

Oct 08

Ohm's Law for Star Ship Engineers

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 
This example shows that physical constants like α can
be modified by the presence of a complex environment,
in this case graphene’s honeycomb lattice. So perhaps
we should not be mystified by the seemingly arbitrary
value of the QED fine-structure constant after all.


"More is different." P.W. Anderson

What's good for QED (Quantum ElectroDynamics) is good for QGMD (Quantum GeometroDynamics).

QED is from the local gauging of the compact global U1 Lie group to U1(x) on some quantized matter fields.
QGMD is from the local gauging of the non-compact T4 Lie group to T4(x)  on ALL quantized matter fields implementing Einstein's version of the Equivalence Principle (EEP).
Space-time fabric is the compensating gauge field from the largest non-compact universal symmetry group of the matter fields.

"Background independence" is simply gauge invariance of ALL matter fields under T4(x) i.e. 1916 Einstein GR.

This is a battle-tested organizing mainstream radically conservative idea for the TOE.

Einstein's attempt at unified field theory means, in post-modern times, enlarging the T4 group.

T4 --> Poincare ---> Conformal (Twistor)

Therefore, Karl Popper falsifiable prediction

1. in graphene sheets

emergent collective IR limit of QED coupling is (index of refraction)e^2/hcvacuum

2. in hypothetical graphene-based room temperature super-conducting meta-material - yet to be manufactured (except, perhaps, by the ET aliens or human time travelers from our future allegedly sabotaging our nuclear missile deterrent)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z0pNV2gjhMQ

http://tinyurl.com/2ah4zuw

emergent collective IR limit of QGMD coupling is (index of refraction)^4GNewton/cvacuum^4

i.e. GMD "Ohm's law" (lumped parameter description)

induced curvature ~ (index of refraction)^4GNewton/cvacuum^4 applied stress-energy current density

analogy

I = V/R

V = applied stress-energy current density

I = induced curvature

Spacetime stiffness = G-string tension = R = cvacuum^4/ (index of refraction)^4GNewton

Maybe, as proposed recently by Xiao-Gang Wen at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the electron
is not as elementary as one would think, but is instead
a consequence of interactions between more complex
degrees of freedom not yet experimentally accessible.

Physics World November 2006

Particularly interesting is the fact that the vacuum, being a dynamical entity, gravitates, which using the concepts of general relativity (GR) means that it affects and is affected by the geometry of the spacetime. This rests at the root of the Hawking effect [4,5], according to which black holes should emit a thermal bath of particles.

Contrary to James Woodward's objection: The speed of light in vacuum index of refraction is mostly from the forward elastic scattering of photons off virtual electron positron pairs (Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations). In materials real on-shell charges contribute. As far gravity is concerned, the equivalence principle demands that off-shell virtual or on-shell real makes no difference to how active sources bend spacetime. Therefore, just as in graphene the effective emergent collective long wave fine structure constant is predicted to be (index of refraction)(vacuum EM coupling) ~ 2, so too, the effective emergent collective long wave gravity coupling should be (index of refraction)^4GNewton/c(vacuum)^4.

Background independence is simply gauge invariance under local T4(x) LNIF --> LNIF' frame transformations. Only the local field equations need obey it not their solutions + pre and post-selected boundary conditions from past and future event horizons etc.

On Oct 8, 2010, at 9:16 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 151102 (2010) [4 pages]
Awaking the Vacuum in Relativistic Stars
Abstract
William C. C. Lima1,*, George E. A. Matsas2,†, and Daniel A. T. Vanzella1,‡
1Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 15980-900, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
2Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271 - Bl. II, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Received 18 March 2010; published 7 October 2010

Void of any inherent structure in classical physics, the vacuum has revealed to be incredibly crowded with all sorts of processes in relativistic quantum physics. Yet, its direct effects are usually so subtle that its structure remains almost as evasive as in classical physics. Here, in contrast, we report on the discovery of a novel effect according to which the vacuum is compelled to play an unexpected central role in an astrophysical context. We show that the formation of relativistic stars may lead the vacuum energy density of a quantum field to an exponential growth. The vacuum-driven evolution which would then follow may lead to unexpected implications for astrophysics, while the observation of stable neutron-star configurations may teach us much on the field content of our Universe.
© 2010 The American Physical Society
URL:    http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.151102
DOI:    10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.151102
PACS:    04.40.Dg, 04.62.+v, 95.30.Sf
*william@ursa.ifsc.usp.br
†matsas@ift.unesp.br
‡vanzella@ifsc.usp.br
Physics World Nov 2006
The unique electronic properties of graphene – a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon that was produced
for the first time just two years ago – make it an ideal testing ground for fundamental physics,
describe Antonio Castro Neto, Francisco Guinea and Nuno Miguel Peres

For example, in quantum electrodynamics (QED),
the strength of electromagnetic interactions between
charged particles is described by the fine-structure constant,
α=e^2/hc, where h– is Planck’s constant divided by
2π and c is the speed of light. With a value of 1 divided
by 137.03599911±0.00000046, this is one of the most
precisely measured physical quantities in nature. Unfortunately,
we have no idea why the fine-structure constant
has this value. Since the effective speed of light
for the Dirac fermions in graphene is 300 times less,
graphene’s fine-structure constant should have a much
larger value of about two, though it has not yet been
measured precisely.


Now the above argument is logically the same as mine for gravity.
Above, it is stated that the large-scale collective IR limit effective coupling of electric charge to light is

(index of refraction)(vacuum coupling of electric charge to compensating gauge boson field of light)

in precisely the same way, I claim

(index of refraction)^4(vacuum coupling of gravitational charge to compensating gauge boson field of gravity)

Note that "vacuum coupling" simply means the way the local gauge boson field scatters off virtual off mass shell particles inside the vacuum.

index of refraction = 1 + scattering of the light off the real on mass shell particles outside the vacuum

also note that light is the compensating SPIN 1 gauge boson field from localizing the internal U1 Lie group

Einstein's gravity is the compensating SPIN 1 gauge boson field from localizing the external universal T4 translation Lie group. Here the SPIN 2 graviton is an entangled pair of SPIN 1 gravity "tetrad" quanta.

The fundamental couplings are dimensionless for both light and gravity, hence renormalizable.

"Background independence" = gauge invariance under local T4(x) frame transformations

At a Glance: Graphene
Graphene was first isolated by Andre Geim’s team at the University of Manchester (2004) ...   using the surprisingly simple technique of ripping layers from a graphite surface using adhesive tape. By repeatedly peeling away thinner layers (left), single-atom-thick sheets were obtained (right), as shown in these scanning electron micrographs.




The trademark behaviour that distinguishes a graphene
sheet from an ordinary metal, for example, is
the unusual form of the Hall effect.



In the original Hall effect, discovered in 1879, a current flowing
along the surface of a metal in the presence of a transverse
magnetic field causes a drop in potential at right
angles to both the current and the magnetic field. As
the ratio of the potential drop to the current flowing
(called the Hall resistivity) is directly proportional to
the applied magnetic field, the Hall effect is used to
measure magnetic fields.

A century later, Klaus von Klitzing discovered that
in a 2D electron gas at a temperature close to absolute
zero the Hall resistivity becomes quantized, taking only
discrete values of h/ne^2 (where h is Planck’s constant,
n is a positive integer and e is the electric charge). The
quantization is so precise that this “quantum Hall
effect” (QHE) is used as the standard for the measurement
of resistivity.

During a discussion about the discovery of graphene
at a tea party in Boston in early 2005, the present
authors started to wonder whether the QHE would
be different in graphene. We realized that due to a
quantum-mechanical effect called a Berry’s phase, the
Hall resistivity should be quantized in terms of odd
integers only. Graphene has a Berry’s phase of π, meaning
that if you “rotate” the quantum-mechanical wavefunction
of the Dirac fermions in graphene through a
full 360°, the system does not end up in the state that
it started in; instead the wavefunction changes sign.
A similar prediction to ours was made independently
in 2005 by Valery Gusynin at the Bogolyubov Institute
for Theoretical Physics in Kiev, Ukraine, and Sergei
Sharapov at McMaster University in Canada.
Soon after its prediction, this “anomalous integer
QHE” was observed experimentally by both Geim and
Kim, laying to rest any lingering doubts that graphene
had really been isolated. Interestingly, Geim’s group
observed the QHE in graphene at room temperature,
while it is only observed in ordinary metals at very low
temperatures. This is because the magnetic energy of
the electrons, called the cyclotron energy, in graphene
is 1000 times greater than it is in other materials. The
researchers also found that the anomalous integer
QHE is extremely sensitive to the thickness of the sample.
For instance, a sample with two layers of graphene
displays a different effect again – meaning that the
anomalous integer QHE can be used to distinguish
between single-layer graphene and multilayer samples.
...
Unlike an ordinary metal,
in which any impurities in the crystal scatter electrons
and so lead to energy loss, the electrical resistance in
graphene is independent of the number of impurities.
This means that electrons can travel for many microns
without colliding with any impurities, making graphene
a promising material for a potential high-speed electronic
switching device called a “ballistic transistor”.

? Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon that was isolated for the first time in
2004 – a feat long thought to be impossible
? Graphene’s 2D nature and honeycomb atomic structure cause electrons moving in
the material to behave as if they have no mass
? Electrons in graphene move at an effective speed of light 300 times less than the
speed of light in a vacuum, allowing relativistic effects to be observed without
using particle accelerators
? A key experimental signature of graphene is the way it modifies the quantum Hall
effect seen in metals and semiconductors
? The electrons in graphene can travel large distances without being scattered,
making it a promising material for very fast electronic components



Therefore the effective index of refraction in graphene is 300, which should increase its bending of spacetime by a factor of 300^4 ~ 10^10 - this may be detectable in the lab, though it would still be a tiny effect.

Massless electrons
Graphene’s unique properties arise from the collective behaviour of electrons. That in itself is nothing new: as summarized in Philip Anderson’s famous dictum “more is different”, we know that when a large number of particles interact strongly with each other, unexpected collective motions can emerge. In the case of graphene, however, the interaction between electrons and the honeycomb lattice causes the electrons to behave as if they have absolutely no mass (see box on page 35). Because of this, the electrons in graphene are governed by the Dirac equation – the quantum-mechanical description of electrons moving relativistically – and are therefore called Dirac fermions.

Yes, it's the missing link for warp-wormhole drive in my opinion - Woodward's interesting objections not withstanding - time will tell. Indeed even at ISSO ten years ago I started thinking of a material apriori that had some of the properties that graphene has. I was motivated by Phil Corso's book "Day After Roswell" - the thin foil story. It's still too early to be sure about anything of course. If we can't do it with stuff based on graphene then we probably can't do it at all. However, the fact of alien ET saucers proves that we can. For the sake of argument I assume that "fact" in the war game scenario that hostile alien ET saucers that disable our nuclear deterrent are real. At the moment think of this as a kind of world-wide internet fantasy social network game, which may turn out to be true in the end. As it turns out, the ultra-capacitor property of ANYONIC graphene sheets sounds a little like Gordon Novel's high voltage capacitor "circuit"! Odd precognitive synchronicity perhaps? That is, if we can make zero frequency negative electrical permittivity with |n| >> 1 then we have an anti-gravity lifter no question of that in my opinion! I now have a rational picture of what Gordon Novel was trying to say - perhaps the Nazis did stumble on to graphene?
(index of refraction)^4GNewton/(vacuum speed of light)^4 = coupling of applied stress-energy density current to induced spacetime curvature
i.e. geometrodynamic "Ohm's Law" for metric engineers, space-time stiffness analog to electrical resistance in an ordinary circuit
the "refutation" based on "background independence" is a Red Herring in my opinion.
Only experiment can decide who is right here. It's a strictly empirical issue in the sense of Popper falsifiability.
On Oct 7, 2010, at 9:14 AM, antigray@cs.com wrote:
Andre Geim: in praise of graphene
 
Nobel laureate explains why the carbon sheets deserved to win this year's prize.

http://www.nature.com/news/2010/101007/full/news.2010.525.html

 

from the Star Gate Chronicles
Humans only discovered graphene sheets in 2004.

Roswell memory foil
Roswell testimony about anomalous thin, lightweight, very strong 'memory' foil that unfolded itself and wouldn't hold creases or dents.
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?
Memory Foil
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Miscellaneous testimony about Roswell metal debris besides 'memory foil' ... thin, paper-thin piece of foil that you couldn't burn and couldn't bend and ...
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TonyRogers.com | Scientist Creates Roswell UFO Metal
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Roswell Controversy (Morgana's Observatory)
Roswell Testimony of Witnesses. ... It's not any thicker than tin foil in a pack of cigarettes. We even tried making a dent in it with a 16-pound sledge ...
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3 of carbon's 4 electrons quantum cohere sp^2 hybridization to form 3 blue sigma bonds at 120 deg from each other in a flat plane, the purple is the pi-orbital free to roam.

Bonding and Hybridization
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals and the Shape of Molecules .... A triple bond thus consists of a sigma-bond and two pi-bonds with the pi-bonds in different ...
chemistry.boisestate.edu/.../bonding and hybridization/bonding_ hybridization.htm -Cached - Similar
hybridization orbitals - Towson University - Search Page
The hybridization of carbon involved in each of these bonds will be investigated in this ...The triple bond consists of one sigma bond and two pi bonds. ...
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Molecular Structure & Bonding
Two p-orbitals remain unused on each sp hybridized atom, and these overlap to give two pi-bonds following the formation of a sigma bond (a triple bond), ...
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YouTube - Orbital hybridization. Sigma and pi bonds (1)
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The remarkable properties of graphene – a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon that was first isolated
in 2004 – have produced a wave of discoveries in fundamental physics. But its new chemical cousin,
graphane, may prove more amazing still, as Kostya Novoselov explains
Kostya Novoselov
is a condensed matter physicist at
the University of Manchester, UK,
e-mail kostya@manchester.co.uk

"Generally defect-free and highly ordered, crystals of graphene are the thinnest objects possible and, simultaneously, 100 times stronger than structural steel – making them the strongest material in nature. ... Graphene is also optically
transparent and chemically inert, as well as being highly conductive.  Such an unusual combination of extreme properties makes this 2D crystal attractive for a wide variety of applications. ... By binding the conductive electrons to another
chemical species, we can produce a graphene-like carbon compound that acts as an insulator. ... This simple change may open up a whole new world of graphene-based chemistry, leading to novel 2D crystals with predefined properties, and an ability to tune the electronic, optical, mechanical and other properties of a material according to one’s needs.


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The guts of the ship "Destiny", the fuselage will be a "Matrix" made out of stacks of sheets of specially nano-engineered graphene also with DNA neural nets (conscious computer) and anti-gravity from the high-temperature superconductive meta-material high-voltage capacitor perhaps - for now it's half-baked science fiction - but I bet that's basically how it will work. Mark my words.
On Oct 6, 2010, at 5:36 PM, d14947 wrote:
I know, that's why I sent it. Could this be used on the hull of a starship? Make super strong transparent steel windows?
Not just the windows - the whole thing.
On Wed, Oct 6, 2010 at 3:18 PM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:
somewhat similar to my theory
On Oct 6, 2010, at 9:17 AM, d14947 wrote:

Will the Physics of Graphene Show that Space-Time is a Mirage?

Oct 06

Why Graphene Scientists Won the Nobel Prize

Posted by: JackSarfatti |
Tagged in: Untagged 


By Tim Carmody
October 5, 2010  |


Imagine “crystals one atom or molecule thick, essentially two-dimensional planes of atoms shaved from conventional crystals

The pair then worked out how to make field-effect transistors using the material and discovered that electrons in the device were able to travel ballistically – that is, without being scattered – from the source to the drain electrode at room temperature.


like a superconductor?

The discovery of graphene triggered a surge of interest in the wonder material. Other researchers, for example, have found that graphene not only conducts heat very well but is also the "strongest material in the world".
Like at Roswell?

http://tinyurl.com/26whnyx

At a practical level, one team of scientists has created a new kind of chemical sensor by combining graphene with DNA,

http://tinyurl.com/2ahj57l

Graphene is stronger and stiffer than diamond, yet can be stretched by a quarter of its length, like rubber. Its surface area is the largest known for its weight.”
a new type of graphene-based, flash-like storage memory, more dense and less lossy than any existing storage technology. ... earlier this year reported techniques to enhance and direct its conductivity by creating wire-like defects to send current flowing through graphene strips.
Texas’s Graphene Energy is using the film to create new ultracapacitators to store and transmit electrical power. Companies currently using carbon nanotubes to create wearable electronics — clothes that can power and charge electrical devices — are beginning to switch to graphene, which is thinner and potentially less expensive to produce.
 true potential of graphene lies in its ability to conduct light as well as electricity. Strong, flexible, light-sensitive graphene could improve the efficiency of solar cells and LEDs, as well as aiding in the production of next-generation devices like flexible touch screens, photodetectors and ultrafast lasers. In particular, graphene could replace rare and expensive metals like platinum and iridium, performing the same tasks with greater efficiency at a fraction of the cost.

graphene “makes possible experiments with high-speed quantum particles that researchers at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, can only dream of.” Because graphene is effectively only two-dimensional, electrons can move through its lattice structure with virtually no resistance. In fact, they behave like Heisenberg’s relative particles, with an effective resting mass of zero.






Oct 06

If we can make a low-power high Tc superconducting warp/wormhole drive I am sure graphene sheets will be the key substrate.


BTW a point about James Woodward's incorrect argument about background independence being spoiled inside the material.  By the same false reasoning one can argue that special relativity is spoiled inside the material because the speed of light in material is clearly not invariant. Just remember locality demands that (index of refraction)^4G/c^4 is the gravity coupling inside the material because the speed of light in vacuum is from scattering off virtual electron-positron pairs and in a material we also have real particle charges. It's the same thing as far as gravity is concerned because of the equivalence principle. The fact that the universe is accelerating is proof positive that virtual particles inside the vacuum (anti) gravitate equally with real particles outside the vacuum.

 

Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer
Eduardo V Castro1,2, K S Novoselov3, S V Morozov3, N M R Peres4, J M B Lopes dos Santos1, Johan Nilsson5, F Guinea2, A K Geim3 and A H Castro Neto5
1 CFP and Departamento de F?sica, Faculdade de Cieˆncias Universidade do Porto, P-4169-007 Porto, Portugal 2 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain 3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK 4 Centre of Physics and Departamento de F ??sica, Universidade do Minho, P-4710-057 Braga, Portugal 5 Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Received 26 February 2010 Published 12 April 2010 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysCM/22/175503

Abstract
We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system—a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level.
Begin forwarded message:
From: Graham Douglas Date: October 6, 2010 12:41:27 AM PDT
To: adastra1@mac.com
Subject: IOP Publishing: read JPCS and other published papers online today from the Nobel Prize 2010 winners
Reply-To: reply-a.0-c.0-i.0-r.8607@herald.iop.org
Dear colleague,
To celebrate the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics, IOP Publishing is making all the work previously published with us by this year's winners open access until the end of 2010.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 was jointly awarded to:
Professor Andre Geim
Dr Kostya Novoselov
For 'groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene'.  Both physicists work at the University of Manchester in the UK.
You can read their work published with IOP Publishing at http://herald.iop.org/npjpcs/m418/zea//link/3935
In addition, Physica Scripta, which is published on behalf of the Physical Societies of the Nordic Countries by IOP Publishing and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, is pleased to announce a new publishing initiative with the Nobel Foundation http://nobelprize.org/.  Physica Scripta will publish copies of the biographies of the 2009 Nobel Prize winners along with their lectures given at the prize ceremony. 
You can read the biographies and lectures given by C K Kao, W S Boyle and G E Smith at the Physica Scripta website: http://herald.iop.org/psnobelpage/m304/zea//link/3937
Best wishes,

Graham Douglas
Publisher
iopscience.org/jpcs
jpcs@iop.org
P.S. If you think your colleagues would enjoy reading this special collection, please forward this e-mail to them.

OK I read it - did not check all the algebra in detail on the count predictions - but it looks like a sound paper in general.

"Conclusion. An experiment has been proposed to demonstrate nonlocality at detection using a setup that can be used to reproduce the Michelson-Morley negative result as well. Both experiments happen under exactly the same conditions and both are supposed to falsify an equivalent prediction for changes in the counting detection rates. Thus, the demonstration of nonlocality can be considered as “loophole free” as that of relativity.

Additionally the experiment stresses that nonlocality at detection prevents locality from bearing odd concepts like “conservation of energy only in average but not in each individual process”, and “hidden local variables propagating in space-time but inaccessible to direct observation”. It also highlights that local models assuming “decision at the beam-splitters” are actually logically inconsistent.

Finally, the experiment clearly shows that relativity and quantum theory share the very same experimental basis, and derive from the same principles. Both seem to respond to the motivation of making a world characterized by the unity of local and nonlocal steering of detection outcomes. Relativity and quantum theory are two inseparable aspects of one and the same description of the physical reality. They do not have a “frail peaceful co- existence”, but share a “maximally entangled” existence: we can’t have one without the other."

This conclusion has been further strengthened in another paper [8].

Work to realize the proposed experiment is in progress.


I have not yet had time to read the several messages from James Woodward on my specific idea to make an ultra-high Tc superconducting meta-material (stacks of specially impurity doped nano-engineered graphene sheets used as high voltage capacitors?) as a warp-wormhole generator. No question that the idea is leading to new predictions like Woodwards's "Carnot Engine" (shine a beam of light far field through the meta-material flat sheet, which heats up at the entrance boundary and cools down at the exit boundary whilst generating a repulsive anti-gravity field in-between. However, with the high voltage capacitor using only the electrostatic near field the Carnot Engine effect should not be there.

More anon.


On Oct 5, 2010, at 3:13 PM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

any opinions on this?

I have not had time to try to understand it.

On Oct 5, 2010, at 3:00 PM, Kim Burrafato wrote:

http://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3847

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This is a highly speculative half-baked imaginative conjecture to be taken with a grain of Kosher salt based on the Nobel Prize in physics 2010 for graphene sheets given to the two Russians now in UK and from my synchronistic discussions with James Woodward.


PS - Jim's radiative gedankenexperiment below looks like a heat engine. But again, this would be a very tiny effect in actual experiments so far. However, it would be a good idea to design experiments specifically to look for such an effect.


On Oct 5, 2010, at 10:37 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:
The practical reason why there is no reason to believe that metamaterials transform the energy densities of electromagnetic waves propagating through them from positive to negative is that were that the case, serious violations of the law of local energy conservation would ensue.  Consider an electromagnetic wave as it makes the transition from propagation in free space to propagation in a metamaterial.  If the energy density of the wave propagating in the metamaterial is negative, the wave must divest itself of enough energy to change its state from positive to negative as it enters the metamaterial.  That energy must go somewhere – presumably into the physical structure of the metamaterial.  So, where the wave enters the metamaterial we should expect to see strong heating.  And where the wave exits the metamaterial, we should expect to see the reverse process – strong cooling.  No reports of this behavior, which could hardly be missed as it would be a pronounced effect, are to be found in the literature. - JW


I think "strong heating" is quantitatively false in every experiment done in meta-materials so far. "Hardly be missed"? On the contrary, very easily missed in the actual experiments done so far. First of all the frequency region of electromagnetic radiation in which conditions for negative EM energy density to obtain needs to be identified. The power levels in those bands are probably quite small and the anomalous heating hard to detect. Also |n| ~ 1 still in the meta-materials that actually exist today. So my point here is that unless extraordinary measures are taken to measure the heat produced it will not even be noticed in actual meta-materials used today.


Certainly if we succeed in making a super-conducting meta-material with |n| >> 1 and negative permittivity and permeability, the heating effect needs to be taken into account and in that case could be strong. Also, for application to wormhole/warp metric engineering we do not want to use incident radiation at all! Woodward's premises above are the wrong ones to use! It's a Red Herring.


Imagine, maybe a 2D graphene sheet doped and nano-engineered to be an ultra-high Tc superconducting metamaterial. Now place equal and opposite static charges Q & - Q on the two boundaries of the sheet - a capacitor. The generated non-radiating electrostatic near field energy density will be ab-initio negative. There is no transformation of positive to negative energy real photons in this gedankenexperiment.