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28

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Jim Woodward's Mach Effect Thruster for Star Ships

Jack Sarfatti "Recently (Anderson 1995; Bonnor 1996) there has been a revival of interest in the question as to whether the cosmological expansion also proceeds at smaller scales. There is a tendency to reject such an extrapolation by confusing it with the intrinsically unobservable

”expansion” (let us refer to this as ”pseudo-expansion”) described above.

By contrast, the metric of Friedman–Robertson–Walker (FRW) in general relativity is intrinsically dynamic with the increase (decrease) of proper distances correlated with red–shift (blue–shift). It does so on any scale provided the light travel time is much longer than the wave period. Thus, the cosmological metric alone does not dictate a scale for expansion and in principle, it could be present at the smallest practical scale as real – as opposed to pseudo–expansion, and observable in principle.

However, it is reasonable to pose the question as to whether there is a cut–off at which systems below this scale do not partake of the expansion. It would appear that one would be hard put to justify a particular scale for the onset of expansion. Thus, in this debate, we are in agreement with Anderson (1995) that it is most reasonable to assume that the expansion does indeed proceed at all scales. However, there is a certain ironical quality attached to the debate in the sense that even if the expansion does actually occur at all scales, we will show that the effects of the cosmological expansion on smaller spatial and temporal scales would be undetectable in general in the foreseeable future and hence one could just as comfortably hold the view that the expansion occurs strictly on the cosmological scale."

It's not clear yet if this is fatal for Jim's theory. It may not be if Jim is simply invoking an advanced Wheeler-Feynman radiative reaction effect. In spin 1 electromagnetism the Mach effect back from the future ~ "jerk" d^3x(test particle)/dt^3, however Jim claims that for spin 2 gravity this same retro-causal effect ~ d^2x(test particle)/dt^2

Electromagnetic radiative reaction is dual to local zero point vacuum energy, i.e. random ZPF virtual photons responsible for spontaneous emission. Therefore, MET if it worked would be a ZERO POINT spin 2 graviton reaction-less engine analogous to the random spin 1 virtual photons in Wheeler-Feynman-Hoyle-Narlikar theory are a past effect whose future cause are the photon absorbers with our future event horizon as the final absorber of last resort. Jim's device uses spin 2 virtual gravitons not spin 1 virtual photons, but the idea is the same.

That is, if I understand his claim correctly Jim claims a modified off-geodesic Newton 2nd law of motion

F = (D/ds)[(Mach Cosmology Effect)P]

D/ds is the covariant derivative with respect to proper time of the test particle

F is the non-gravity 4-force on the test particle

P is the 4-momentum of the test particle

D/ds = d/ds + Inertial pseudo forces including Newton's gravity "force without force" (Levi Civita terms).

The future horizon, if it's a total absorber, gives

(Mach Cosmology Effect) ~ 1 on the average.

OK Jim's idea of the MET thruster is very simple if you accept the above

If there is a dynamic Machian oscillation then even when F = 0 and even in a local inertial frame where the pseudo forces vanish by the Einstein equivalence principle

0 = Pd(Mach Coefficient)/ds + (Mach Coefficient)dP/ds

However, the fly in Jim's ointment is

"we will show that the effects of the cosmological expansion on smaller spatial and temporal scales would be undetectable in general in the foreseeable future and hence one could just as comfortably hold the view that the expansion occurs strictly on the cosmological scale"

On Jun 26, 2013, at 10:30 PM, JACK SARFATTI <instbio@gmail.com> wrote:

This paper is essential for Jim's MET

the issue is how large scale cosmic structure influences the small-scale of Jim's machine

On Jun 26, 2013, at 9:45 PM, David Mathes wrote:

29. arXiv:astro-ph/9803097 [pdf, ps, other]

The influence of the cosmological expansion on local systems

F. I. Cooperstock, V. Faraoni, D. N. Vollick (University of Victoria)

Comments: To appear in the Astrophysical Journal, Latex

Journal-ref: Astrophys.J. 503 (1998) 61

Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph); General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)