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Tag » Doppler radars
Common misunderstanding of Einstein's "Happiest Thought" corrected & bogus-bad pseudo-physics critiques of Einstein's Equivalence Principle.
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  • Jack Sarfatti Einstein wrote in ~ 1907: "The breakthrough came suddenly one day. I was sitting on a chair in my patent office in Bern. Suddenly the thought struck me: If a man falls freely, he would not feel his own weight. I was taken aback. This simple thought experiment made a deep impression on me. This led me to the theory of gravity. I continued my thought: A falling man is accelerated. Then what he feels and judges is happening in the accelerated frame of reference. I decided to extend the theory of relativity to the reference frame with acceleration. I felt that in doing so I could solve the problem of gravity at the same time. A falling man does not feel his weight because in his reference frame there is a new gravitational field, which cancels the gravitational field due to the Earth. In the accelerated frame of reference, we need a new gravitational field.”
    4 minutes ago · Like · 1
  • Jack Sarfatti Those quotes are from early Einstein around 1907 and Jim Woodward repeats what I said repeatedly that Einstein himself was still unclear in his own mind on how to use words like "accelerated frame" back then. He was in middle of breaking away from Newton's GRIP on the mind of how to think about gravity.
    3 minutes ago · Like · 1
  • Jack Sarfatti Here is the source of the confusion.

    Einstein is naturally thinking in Newtonian terms.

    In GR terms still not invented then

    "acceleration" above means relative kinematical acceleration between test particle and local frame.

    It does not mean real (proper) acceleration (off-geodesic) as measured by an accelerometer.

    The general law is"

    real acceleration on test particle = relative kinematical acceleration between test particle and local frame - real acceleration of local frame.

    DP(test particle)/ds = dP(test particle-frame)/ds - DP'(local frame)/ds

    P = mV test particle

    V = dX/ds

    X = relative kinematical displacement between test particle and local frame detector.

    D/ds = d/ds - {LC frame connection}dX/ds

    DP(test particle)/ds 

    = dP(test particle)/ds - {LC frame connection}(dX/ds)P(test particle)

    when dm/ds = 0

    D^2X/ds^2 = d^2X/ds^2 - {LC frame connection}(dX/ds)^2

    {LC frame connection}(dX/ds)^2 = M^-1DP(frame)/ds

    M = mass of frame/detector

    {LC frame connection} has dimension 1/Length

    ds is PROPER TIME element along world line of object.

    Each term has an independent measurement technique.

    Real accelerations are measured by accelerometers attached to the objects.


    Accelerometers measure off-geodesic "pushes" by real forces.
    An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration. The proper accel...See More
  • Jack Sarfatti In contrast, the kinematic acceleration is measured by Doppler radars



    DV/ds is measured directly locally by an accelerometer clamped to the test particle - real measurement 1

    dV/ds = d^2X/ds^2 is measured indirectly by the Doppler radar clamped to the local frame detector - real measurement 2

    M^-1DP(frame)/ds is measured directly by a second acclerometer clamped to the frame-Doppler radar - measurement 3

    The BASIC LAW is

    measurement 1 = measurement 2 - measurement 3

    provided that test particle and frame Doppler radar are not far away from each other relative to A^1/2 where A^-1 is smallest local radius of curvature.

    The geodesic equation is simply Newton's first law when

    measurement 1 = 0

    Newton's second law is simply when

    measurement 1 =/= 0

    there is never any cancellation of real forces on any one object in this context

    the LNIF ---> LIF in measurement 3 simply means removing a real unbalanced force on the frame detector according to Newton's 1st law.
    A Doppler radar is a specialized radar that makes use of the Doppler effect to p...See More
  • Jack Sarfatti Einstein's use of "accelerated" here is in Newton's sense - the rest frame of the freely falling man is kinematically accelerated relative to the Earth

    i.e. d^2X/ds^2

    the freely falling man's local frame is LIF - though Einstein did not yet discover that in 1907 and his informal language is still Newtonian because the modern GR informal language of 1916 and after is not yet emerged.
  • Jack Sarfatti “there is a new gravitational field,
    which cancels the gravitational field
    due to the Earth.”

    This is Einstein's remark that Z and other muddled philosophers and Laputa Scholastics pulls out of proper context. Yes, Einstein wrote it back around 1907 before he understood the problem the way he eventually would in 1916. 

    In fact there is only one gravity field not two.

    The point is that there was never a real gravity force field on the test particle to begin with.

    Therefore, you don't need a second gravity force field to cancel what was never there!

    Indeed, there is no way to measure either of these alleged two real gravity forces to begin with. You can never separate them. Accelerometers on test particles always show zero.

    Therefore, like the mechanical aether these two forces are not independently measurable - they are errors of thinking - excess metaphysical informal language baggage.