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James F. Woodward's Frankenstein Project
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  • Jack Sarfatti My Review of James F. Woodward’s book “Making Starships and Stargates” Springer 2013 V2
    Jack Sarfatti
    John G. Cramer, proponent of the transactional interpretation of orthodox quantum theory based on the Wheeler-Feynman back-from-the-future advanced potential of classical electromagnetism, endorses Woodward’s theory in the “Foreword” I will play Devil’s Advocate usually assigned to Wolfgang Pauli. I pretty much agree with most of Woodward’s “Preface” except for his short shrift for the reality of flying saucers operated by an advanced intelligence. I mean, “advanced” in two senses including the back-from-the-future meaning. So I will home in on what I think are Woodward’s mistakes in his theory. I have nothing intelligent to say about his experiments except that scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seemingly refuted them about fourteen years ago and that Woodward has not succeeded in getting a small model to fly under its own power in those fourteen years. Neither have any of his competitors in the fringe physics propellantless propulsion world.

    Of course, we Pirates of Penzance are all on the same side against the establishment pundits of physics who, in Cramer’s words:

    “Erect a ‘picket fence’ around those solutions of Einstein’s equations … to place stable traversable wormholes, faster-than-light warp drives, and time machines in the forbidden area outside the fence … it is presumed that nature does not allow such disreputable objects to exist.”

    Woodward professes that “both inertial reaction forces and mass itself” have a “gravitational origin.” (p.xviii) He hedges on whether his approach will allow us to manufacture practical stargates (i.e., traversable wormholes without event horizons that do not pinch off killing the traveler and destroying any message in a signal) but is more optimistic that “at least a means of propellant-free propulsion can be created using Mach effects.”(p.xix) Using orthodox theory assuming Newton’s G requires an impossible Jupiter mass of exotic negative mass matter to make a stargate of few tens of meters across. Woodward invokes the classical 1960 ADM model. Curiously, I was a graduate student in physics at Brandeis in 1960 when Deser was there creating that model. Woodward does not seem to realize that he needs David Bohm’s hidden variable picture of classical particles piloted by a quantum information field in order for the ADM model to make sense. Niels Bohr’s “Copenhagen interpretation” with its magical collapse of the state does not even allow such a picture as ADM suggest. Since I am partial to Bohm’s picture, this is not a bad thing. Woodward alleges that the ADM model “when fixed” shows that there is a lot of negative energy matter locked inside ordinary matter like the electron. Of course, we now know since 1998 that about 68% of our observable universe’s stuff is exotic “dark energy” exactly what we need. However, its energy density 6.7 x 10-10 Joules/meter3 is way too small for our purpose unless we can amplify it by many powers of ten. Perhaps, the advanced intelligences in the flying saucers are doing just that? Woodward claims that the negative exotic matter creating universally repelling antigravity is screened at a distance by distant matter by. This is definitely not mainstream textbook physics taught in the top universities. He proposes a kind of catalytic avalanche effect, like the straw that broke the camel’s back, or the butterfly wing flapping creating a super storm across the world, a pistol shot causing an avalanche. What is disturbing, however, is Woodward’s Frankenstein Monster supposing he were on the right track, fortunately my bet is that he is not, but I could be wrong. Woodward intends to expose a Jupiter mass of exotic matter as his end product, and to concentrate it in a region a few meters across. If this isn’t madness I don’t what is. 
  • Jack Sarfatti “Woodward extended the work of Sciama in investigating the origins of inertia in the framework of general relativity by consideration of time-dependent effects that occur when energy is in flow while an object is being accelerated. … It predicts large time-dependent variations in inertia, the tendency of matter to resist acceleration. … The inertial transient effects … have G in the denominator, and dividing by a small number produces a large effect. … he has been able to demonstrate tens of micronewton-level thrusts … they represent convincing evidence that Woodward-Sciama inertial transients are a real physical phenomenon and that the underlying calculations behind them should be taken seriously … Personal flying cars and reactionless heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit space vehicles cannot be ruled out … The … inertial transient … second term, which is always negative and can in principle drive the inertial mass to zero or negative values … could … be used to provide the ‘exotic mass’ needed to stabilize wormholes and produce superluminal warp drives. ” P.ix

    “Exotic matter is available in everyday matter, normally screened by the gravitational interaction with chiefly distant matter in the universe. … exposure can be achieved by cancelling the gravitational effect of the chiefly distant matter with nearby exotic, negative rest mass matter. The amount … needed to trigger this is miniscule in comparison with the Jupiter mass that results from exposure. Mach effects … produce the exotic matter required … for exposure.” P.xix
Jack Sarfatti
2 minutes ago via Twitter
    http://t.co/wYnvApwlL2 updated 12-20-13
    Jack Sarfatti - Academia.edu
    More on the physical meaning of gauge transformations in both gravity and the electromagnetic-weak-strong interactions 12-18-13 The subject of gauge transformations is almost always presented in an obscure way as a purely formal mathematical exercise without direct physical meaning. This is all clas...
  • Jack Sarfatti On Dec 20, 2013, at 8:58 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

    On Dec 20, 2013, at 6:02 AM, Paul Murad wrote:

    So you are calling electric forces which I would call as real forces...

    Paul Murad
    Morningstar Applied Physics, LLC

    Electric force is real because it pushes charges off timelike geodesics of Einstein's geometrodynamical field, i.e. the Ruvwl curvature tensor field, which can be zero of course - zero is a good real number.

    My point is perhaps a bit surprising.

    The canonical 3-momentum of a charge e of mass m is

    P = mV + (e/c)A

    Total local momentum of the charge + EM field = Kinetic momentum of the charge + EM field momentum

    A gauge transformation is

    mV -> mV' = mV + hgradf

    (e/c)A -> (e/c)A' = (e/c)A - hgradf

    P -> P' -> P + hgradf - hgradf = P


    Therefore the canonical 3-momentum P is gauge invariant.

    h is Planck's constant, so this is a quantum effect in what first appears to be a purely classical problem.

    First surprise!

    From the point of view of local field theory if we suppose that the charge and the field at the charge are a closed system so that

    dP/dt = 0

    then what we have is simply a Newton third law 



    mV -> mV' = mV + hgradf 

    is the ACTION of the electromagnetic field A on the charge e of mass m.

    (e/c)A -> (e/c)A' = (e/c)A - hgradf

    Is the equal and opposite REACTION of the charge e on the field A

    This is a LOCAL exchange of a virtual photon of momentum hgradf between COINCIDENT charge and field.

    The classical equation of motion in an inertial frame follows trivially

    dP/dt = mdV/dt + (e/c)dA/dt = 0

    E = - (1/c)dA/dt


    mdV/dt = eE

    Now I can do the same thing for Einstein's GR using the Levi-Civita connection, where now, instead of virtual momentum transfers between particle and field, we have real proper acceleration changes between locally coincident LNIFs measuring the motion of test particles that keep the proper forces on the observed test particles a tensor. This gives direct physical meaning to the inhomogeneous terms in the non-tensor Levi-Civita connection transformation induced by the formal general coordinate transformations. In other words it is a heuristic physical picture of gravity gauge symmetry on the Levi-Civita connection, which is not a tensor. 


    On Thursday, December 19, 2013 8:58 PM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:
    it's real
    On Dec 18, 2013, at 6:13 PM, Paul Murad <ufoguypaul@yahoo.com> wrote:

    What electric force or is that fictitious?

    Paul Murad
    Morningstar Applied Physics, LLC

    On Wednesday, December 18, 2013 6:36 PM, Jack Sarfatti wrote:
    Imagine two bricks taped together with a dynamite stick and timer released from an airplane 

    The dynamite explodes

    There are transient real electric forces on the shattered brick pieces momentarily pushing them off their geodesics
    After a while these forces vanish and all the pieces relax to geodesics 
    Where is the beef?

    The fact is that Jim uses an undefined primitive he calls "inertial reaction force" that has no relation to anything in textbooks on the subject unless he means

    F = DP/ds

    Jim has never given me a straight answer and I cannot find a clear definition in his book either.

    Any suggestions?

    Sent from my iPad

    On Dec 18, 2013, at 3:20 PM, Jack Sarfatti wrote:

    Sent from my iPad

    On Dec 18, 2013, at 10:41 AM, Ruth Kastner wrote:

    But I should add that Jack can give a 'substantivalist' account of what you describe by appealing to the constraining effect of spacetime to keep the remaining block on its geodesic. What you describe as an inertial force, Jack describes as geodesically-constrained motion. Different, irreconcilable, metaphysical pictures. (I happen to question the substantivalist idea that spacetime has these sorts of causal powers. But that's the mainstream view.)



The issue before me is how to address them properly in my Stargate book and in my reviews of his book. I will take several weeks pondering this. I will not make Jim's theory a central part of my book as I have plenty of original material myself.

On Oct 20, 2013, at 12:20 AM, "jfwoodward@juno.com" <jfwoodward@juno.com> wrote:


The continuation of last night's comments.  Jack and Paul, by the way, have repaired to a shorter list to continue their mathematical discussions.  As far as I am concerned, this process has been like tapping a kaleidoscope.  I've known about Einstein's predilection for Mach's ideas since reading John David North's history of cosmology back in the '60s.  
60's - paleolithic times in cosmology and in general relativity. See Feynman's letter to his wife at Warsaw GR meeting - it's online.

And with every pass, I learn a bit more -- though a bit less with each pass, at least recently.

As I said yesterday, much of the confusion [leaving aside the silliness about "fictitious" forces] in this business seems to be an outgrowth of the now allegedly mainstream view that gravity is only present when non-vanishing spacetime curvature is present -- a view that seems to have its origins in a neo-Newtonian view that large constant potentials can be gauged away as irrelevant.  This comports with the widespread view that the Aharanov-Bohm experiment notwithstanding, potentials in classical situations are not real.  Only the fields derived from them are.
Jim's writing about fictitious forces in his book is hardly intelligible to me. 
Jim also seems to be confused about "potentials"
There are superficial formal analogies between Einstein's geometrodynamics and Maxwell's electrodynamics, but one must be very careful in applying them.
Jim cites Bohm-Aharonov. OK first look at Maxwell's electrodynamics. I use Cartan's forms
We have a potential 1-form A that is a connection for parallel transport of objects in the U1 circle fiber space.
The gauge transformations are
A --> A' = A + df
f = 0-form scalar
d^2 = 0
It's line integrals of A around closed loops that give the observable quantum phase shifts in the Bohm-Aharonov effect via Stoke's theorem etc.
The EM curvature is the 2-form
F = dA which is gauge invariant
F' = dA' = dA + d^2f = dA = F
Maxwell's field equations concern the 3-forms
dF = d^2A = 0  these are two of Maxwell's equations - no magnetic monopoles and Faradays EMF law (motors, generators ....)
d*F = *J   these are the last two - Ampere's law with displacement current and Gauss's law
* = Hodge dual
d*J = d^2*F = 0
is local conservation of electric current densities
this is a 4-form in 4D spacetime dual to a 0-form.
This gauge theory extends to the non-Abelian unitary groups SU2 and SU3 that describe the weak and strong forces (Yang-Mills).
Jim's vector theory if done correctly has
g00 = 1 + phi/c^2
g0i = Ai
However, the analogy to EM as a gauge theory breaks down completely, because the F to Jim's A is the Levi-Civita connection.
In fact the proper analogy is that the Levi-Civita connection is the analog to the EM A and the curvature tensor is the analog to EM's F.
Conservation of currents is the Bianchi identity in GR.
However, to make the analogy more transparent. General relativity as a local gauge theory is a non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory based on the Poincare symmetry group of Einstein's special relativity.
Einstein's 1905 Special Relativity mathematically is the representation theory of the global 10-parameter Poincare group.
General relativity is properly named because it is a limiting case (zero torsion) of the local gauge theory of the Poincare group with the real gravity field as the curvature 2-form from the connection 1-form just as in Maxwell's electrodynamics.
However, the connection 1-form corresponding to Maxwell's A is not the Levi-Civita connection from the usual 1916 GR tensor formulation, rather it is the six spin connection 1-forms AIJ  = - AJI with two LIF indices, IJ analogous to the internal indices Aa in Yang-Mills theory of the SU2 and SU3 internal groups and the 4 tetrad connection 1-forms eI.
There are therefore 10 connection 1-forms one for each "charge" generator of the Poincare group (linear-momentum-energy, rotational momentum, Lorentz boosts)
The Levi-Civita connection is derivable from the spin connections and the tetrads.
The four eI are the base 1-forms for a geodesic LIF dual to the tangent vector fiber space basis.
The spin connection allows coupling of gravity to spinors, the Levi-Civita connection does not.
Therefore, Einstein's 1916 geometrodynamics reformulated in modern Cartan-forms has the local gauge structure
D = d + SIJ/   Cartan exterior covariant derivative
summation convention over repeated indices - I am too lazy to put in the ^ for upper indices.
TI = DeI = deI + SIJ/eI = dislocation defect torsion field 2-form
RIJ = DSIJ = dSIJ + SIK/SKJ = disclination defect curvature field 2-form.
Einstein's 1916 theory requires the ad-hoc constraint
TI = 0
In that limit:
Einstein-Hilbert action density is the 0-form scalar without cosmological constant for simplicity
with Euler-Lagrange equation for vacuum is the 1-form equation
*(eI/RJL) = 0
in ordinary tensor language this is
Ruv - (1/2)guv = 0
Including the matter-field sources gives
*(eI/RJK) = (8piG/c^4)*(TIJK)
More details are in Rovelli's lectures http://www.cpt.univ-mrs.fr/~rovelli/book.pdf
This may be true for all other physical fields.  But it is not true for gravity.  The vector part of the gravitational potential very definitely does depend on the particular value of the scalar potential calculated.  There are some formal technical details that complicate this a bit.  But the idea that you can ignore cosmic scale matter currents when computing local gravitational effects is still just wrong.
I find above comment by Jim unintelligible - at least at the present time.

Tonight, what I want to do, however, is talk a bit about a couple of other matters.  The first is the "origin" of inertia.  You may recall that Jack gave a long list of mechanisms -- the Higgs process, QCD calculations, and suchlike -- that allegedly are the origin of mass, and thus inertia.  The fact of the matter is that none of these processes (valid in and of themselves) account for the origin of mass and inertia.  Frank Wilczek, after telling you about these processes in his book The Lightness of Being, allows as much (on pages 200 through 202).
I am staring at those pages and I see nothing in Wilzcek's text that justifies Jim's extraordinary claim above. Certainly nothing that needs Mach's principle that simply replaces one mystery with another. Again Jim is confounding two different meanings of "inertia" just as he and other confound two different meanings of "gravity field".
Mach's Principle only is concerned with how matter affects disclination geodesic deviation (aka curvature). The real gravity field of Einstein's geometrodynamics is the field of "geodesic deviation" corresponding to inhomogeneities in Newton's "gravity field", which is a fictitious force field.
Mach's principle is not concerned with the origin of rest masses of elementary particles. Einstein briefly confounded the two, but it led nowhere.  Wilzcek is concerned in those pages 200 - 202 with the cosmic landscape/Anthropic principle issue. Why these particular numbers and not others. http://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/reading_list/indices/book_487.html
A word on history. What Einstein may or may not have said in 1907 in his informal language as he groped toward GR is completely irrelevant to the modern understanding of general relativity. This is a normal evolution of all good physical theories. I have no patience with cranks that try to make a big deal over that. Such discussions are a waste of time for me.

Inertia is a universal property of stuff.  And the only universal interaction that couples stuff is gravity.  It is thus obvious that if gravity produces inertial forces (that is, the relativity of inertia obtains), that gravity should have a lot to do with the origin of inertia.  (The origin of inertia was the title of Sciama's first paper on this I note.  So I'm not making this up.)
Jim's remark above is unintelligible to me. This is what I mean by "inertial force."
inertial force  (-nûrshl)
An apparent force that appears to affect bodies within a non-inertial frame, but is absent from the point of view of an inertial frame. Centrifugal forces and Coriolis forces, both observed in rotating systems, are inertial forces. Inertial forces are proportional to the body's mass. See also General Relativity.
Newton's gravity force per unit test mass -GMr/r^3 is an inertial force in exactly the same way as centrifugal and Coriolis forces are.
They are all part of the Levi-Civita connection which vanishes at the origin of a Local Inertial Frame (LIF).
The "force of gravity" you feel as weight on Earth is the unbalanced electrical force pushing you off a timelike geodesic of the local curvature real gravity field mostly due to the mass of Earth. You need that unbalanced force on you to keep you still (with respect to Earth) in the curved spacetime we live in. Earth pushes up on you and you push down on Earth etc. - action-reaction Newton's 3rd law.
Therefore, I find Jim's discussion of inertial forces here and in his book unintelligible and not mainstream.

This is more obvious still when you discover that phi = c^2 is the condition that must be satisfied for inertial forces to be due to gravity.  You don't even have to fudge with dimensions to get this to work.  
I also find "phi = c^2" unintelligible and not mainstream physics.

The dimension of phi is velocity squared.  You may not like this result.  Jack it seems doesn't.  But it is a simple consequence of GRT.  You might think that this means that should the rest of the matter in the universe be made to disappear (or should you screen an object from the gravity of all that matter) the mass of an object would go to zero -- as is assumed in a number of discussions of Mach's principle and the origin of inertia.  But that's not what happens.  Read chapters 7 and 8.
Unintelligible to me still as of this date.

The last thing I want to comment on is, how the devil did all this get so bolixed up?  Recent kaleidoscope tapping suggests that there were two crucial mistakes that are largely responsible for all the confusion.  The first mistake was made by Einstein in 1921.  By that time, he had been worked over by Willem deSitter and disabused of his naive Machianism (which is why he started talking about spacetime as an "ether" about this time).  So the claims he put into his Princeton lectures on Mach's principle were more tentative than they had been previously.  One of the things he calculated that he took to be in accord with Mach's ideas was the effect of "spectator" matter (that is, nearby stuff) on the mass of an object.  He claimed that piling up spectator matter would cause the mass of the object in question to increase (because of its changed gravitational potential energy).  A very small amount.  But if the origin of mass is the gravitational influence of cosmic matter, this is just the sort of effect you might expect to see.

It turns out that Einstein was wrong about this.  That's what Carl Brans showed in 1962 (as part of his doctoral work at Princeton with Bob Dicke).  The EP simply forbids the localization of gravitational potential energy.  So, the inference that GRT is explicitly non-Machian regarding inertia and its origin is perfectly reasonable.  It's the inference that Brans and Dicke -- and everyone else for that matter -- took away.  Brans and Dicke, to remedy this presumed defect of GRT, resuscitated Pasqual Jordan's scalar-tensor version of gravity, hoping the scalar field part could bring in Machian ideas.

The second crucial mistake is the inference everyone made that Brans' EP argument meant that Mach's principle isn't contained in GRT.  Indeed, exactly the opposite is the case.  Brans' conclusion from the EP is absolutely necessary for Mach's principle to be contained in GRT.  It is the conclusion that must be true if inertial reaction forces are always to satisfy Newton's third law, for it guarantees that phi = c^2 ALWAYS when measured locally.  But everyone had adopted the false inference that GRT is non-Machian.  It's no wonder that issues of Mach's principle in GRT has been so confused.  It's no wonder that C+W (really Wheeler I'd guess, for he witnessed the Mach wars of the '50s and '60s) tried to use Lynden-Bell's initial data and constraint equations approach to implement Einstein's parting shot at Mach's principle in the '20s.  The origin of inertia is just too important to let go with the sort of "explanations" now floating around.
Unintelligible. EEP follows trivially once one understands that Newton's gravity force is simply the fictitious force on the weightless geodesic test particle as seen visually in a static LNIF from real electrical forces pushing the static LNIF off a local timelike geodesic.

On a personal note, I've known that phi = c^2 (locally) is the condition to get all of the Mach stuff to work since around 1992.  But I was focused on inertial forces and how they might be transiently manipulated.  And doing experiments.  I won't tell you how long it took for the other aspect of the origin of inertia to sink in -- even though it was staring me in the face. . . .

Keep the faith,
Sorry Jim but the faith required here is not scientific in my opinion.




Excerpt from my Starship book (in progress)

On Oct 10, 2013, at 10:39 AM, JACK SARFATTI wrote:

Of direct importance to the advanced super-technology of warp drive and wormhole star gates from our alleged visitors from our own future is the problem of classical curvature singularities in Einstein’s 1916 battle-tested standard geometrodynamics of the gravitational field.

“Together with the great theoretical and experimental successes of Einstein standard geometrodynamics, come two main conceptual problems.[i] First, the theory predicts the occurrence of spacetime singularities, events which are not part of a smooth spacetime manifold,[ii] where usually the curvature diverges and where the Einstein field equation and the known physical theories cease to be valid. Second, Einstein’s theory of gravitation, unlike the other fundamental interactions, has not yet been successfully quantized.”

Einstein’s 1916 classical GR geometrodynamics in the weak field first order perturbation approximation against the non-dynamical globally flat Minkowski spacetime of his 1905 special relativity has “achieved an experimental triumph” with “direct confirmations” of gravitational time dilation, gravitational bending of light (lensing), lunar laser ranging, de Sitter geodetic effect, GPS. Transverse polarized far field gravity waves have been indirectly detected from the orbital energy loss of binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16. Gravimagnetism, a very weak effect, has recently been measured in NASA’s Gravity B space experiment.

“the concept of gravimagnetic field generated by mass currents, in partial analogy with electrodynamics, … its measurement of the dragging of inertial frames” constitutes “direct experimental evidence against an absolute inertial frame of reference and … experimentally displays the basic role in nature of the local inertial frames.” [iii]

[i] Enrico Rodrigo’s Stargate book updates the singularity problem and shows that there are now several ways of dealing with it since the classical energy conditions assumed by Penrose and Hawking are actually false in quantum theory. The discovery of anti-gravity dark energy accelerating the space expansion of our observable universe (aka “causal diamond”) also is a game changer.

[ii] My “Destiny Matrix” conjecture that we live inside of a hologram conscious computer simulation has the “brane of GOD(D)” (I. J. Good’s “superluminal telepathic” cosmic consciousness) at our future de Sitter event horizon of asymptotic area-entropy A. The dark energy we see now in our past light cone is actually gravitationally redshifted back-from-the-future (as in Yakir Aharonov’s post-selected destiny quantum wave and John Cramer’s TI) Wheeler-Feynman Hawking black body gravity wave radiation from the Planck length thickness of that future horizon. The surface of the horizon is discrete pixelated into quantum area bits whose images are voxelated quantum volume bits of what Hagen Kleinert calls the World Crystal Lattice. However, the 3D lattice spacing is only Fermi 10-15 meters not the 2D lattice pixel spacing of 10-35 meters. The problem here is that we need w = pressure/energy density < - 1/3 for dark energy, whilst blackbody radiation has w = +1/3. This is because of the Einstein factor (energy density)(1 + 3w) in the stress-energy current density source of his geometrodynamic field equation. When w < - 1/3 the positive energy density giving universally attractive gravity switches over to the “exotic matter” regime of universally repulsive antigravity, which stops the crunch to oblivion of the black hole singularity. Now it may well be that back-from-the-future advanced Hawking radiation does have w < - 1/3 from the kinds of EPR correlations that Lenny Susskind talks about that cause deviations away from the Planck black body spectrum preserving the unitarity of the S-Matrix of the world. This is still, speculation of course. Another approach is the Unruh effect, which says w = -1 random zero point quantum vacuum fluctuations seen in LIFs morph to w = +1/3 black body radiation in a coincident LNIF and vice versa. The effective LNIF that we see in our detectors has a Hawking temperature that when raised to the fourth power according to Stefan-Boltzmann’s law gives the correct number measured for dark energy density in the anomalous redshift data from Type 1a supernovae.

[iii] The recent book Making Starships by James Woodward (Springer-Verlag) proposes a theory with an actual experiment based on Dennis Sciama’s 1950’s “vector theory of gravity”. I consider this model to be ill-posed, too simplistic, and from what I can understand of it, it presupposes an absolute inertial frame that conflicts with the gravimagnetism of Einstein’s GR.



Making Star Trek Real

Jack Sarfatti
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  • Jack Sarfatti Preface

    I adopt as a working hypothesis that the flying saucers are real and that they get here through stargates that are shortcut tunnels in Einstein’s spacetime continuum. The task is then to see what modern physics has to say about such a scenario even if it’s not true. Whether or not it’s true is beside the point and I will not discuss the actual UFO evidence, good, bad and bogus in this book. I will also write about quantum theory and its relation to computing, consciousness, cosmology, the hologram universe and ending in a scenario for Stephen Hawking’s “Mind of God.” That Hawking thinks God is not necessary is again is beside the point. A good layman’s background reference here is Enrico Rodrigo’s “The Physics of Stargates: Parallel Universes, Time Travel and the Enigma of Wormhole Physics.” If you have the patience, Leonard Susskind’s Stanford University lectures in physics online videos are also worth the effort for the serious student
  • Jack Sarfatti Chapter 1 Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in a Nutshell

    Here I follow “Gravitation and Inertia” by Ignazio Ciufolini and John Archibald Wheeler, which is a more up to date sequel to the Misner, Thorne, Wheeler classic book “Gravitation.”

    “Gravity is not a foreign and physical force transmitted through space and time. It is a manifestation of the curvature of spacetime.” Albert Einstein

    “First, there was the idea of Riemann that space, telling mass how to move, must itself – by the principle of action and reaction – be affected by mass. It cannot be an ideal Euclidean perfection, standing in high mightiness above the battles of matter and energy. Space geometry must be a participant in the world of physics.” John Archibald Wheeler (aka JAW) 

    “Second, there was the contention of Ernst Mach that the ‘acceleration relative to absolute space’ of Newton is only properly understood when it is viewed as acceleration relative to the sole significant mass there really is.” JAW

    The above statement is now obsolete since ordinary matter in the form of baryons, electrons, photons etc. is now known to be not more that approximately 5% of all the gravitating stuff that we can see in the past light cones of our telescopes. About 70% is large-scale anti-gravitating dark energy accelerating the expansion speed of 3D space. Random quantum vacuum zero point virtual photons and other spin 1 and spin 2 quanta in quantum field theory have negative pressure three times greater than their positive energy density and may be dark energy. The remaining approximately 25% is clumped shorter-scale gravitating dark matter that holds galaxies together. Random quantum vacuum zero point virtual electron-positron and other spin ½ quanta have positive pressure three times greater than their negative energy density causing attractive gravity like dark matter. If dark matter is this quantum vacuum effect dictated by local Lorentz covariance and Einstein’s Equivalence Principle (aka EEP), then none of the attempts to measure real on-mass-shell particles whizzing through space to explain dark matter will succeed. There are, however, “f(R)” MOND variations of Einstein’s general relativity that attempt to explain both dark matter and dark energy.
  • Jack Sarfatti “According to this ‘Mach Principle,’ inertia here arises from mass there.” JAW

    This is summarized in Einstein’s 1915 local tensor field equation relating the source stress-energy current densities of matter fields to the curvature of spacetime locally coincident with matter currents. However, when we solve those local field equations we have to impose global boundary/initial conditions and use the method of Green’s function propagators to see how matter currents here change spacetime curvature there. The “inertia” in Wheeler’s statement above refers to the pattern of force-free time like geodesic paths of test particles whose mass is small enough to neglect their distortion of the local curvature gravity field. The word “inertia” in the context of Mach’s principle above does not refer at all to the actual rest masses of the test particles. Indeed, the test particle rest masses cancel out of the timelike geodesic equations of motion that correspond to Newton’s first law of motion. Galileo first understood this though he did not have the modern mathematical concepts I am using here. 

    “Third was that great insight of Einstein that … ‘free fall is free float’: the equivalence principle, one of the best tested principles of physics, from the inclined tables of Galilei and the pendulum experiments of Galilei, Huygens, and Newton to the highly accurate torsion balance measurements of the twentieth century, and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment … With these three clues vibrating in his head, the magic of mind opened to Einstein what remains one of mankind’s most precious insights: gravity is manifestation of spacetime curvature.”

    What should we mean by the word “inertia” and what is its relation to gravity? Wheeler means: “The local equivalence of ‘gravitation’ and ‘inertia,’ or the local cancellation of the gravitational field by local inertial frames … A gravitational field is affected by mass-energy distributions and currents, as are the local inertial frames. Gravitational field and local inertial frames are both characterized by the spacetime metric, which is determined by the mass-energy distributions and currents.”
  • Jack Sarfatti The same term “gravitational field” is used in several different meanings depending on context. When Wheeler talks about the “cancellation of the gravitational field by local inertial frames” he means Newton’s universally attracting radial 1/r2 field from a spherically symmetric source mass. In the tensor calculus language of Einstein’s 1916 general theory of relativity of gravitation, Newton’s gravity field is a piece of the Levi-Civita connection terms in the directional covariant derivative of the linear four-momentum of a test particle with respect to the proper clock time along its path or world line in four-dimensional spacetime. The second meaning of “gravitational field” is the tensor curvature, which is the rotational covariant partial derivative “curl” of the Levi-Civita connection with respect to itself. Einstein’s theory is a local classical field theory whose measurable properties or “observables” must be tensors and spinors. 

    The local geometrodynamic field moves massive test particles in force-free inertial motion on timelike geodesics, but do not back-react on the geometrodynamic field. We distinguish test particles from source masses, which generate the geometrodynamic field in a similar way to how electric charges generate the electromagnetic field.
  • Jack Sarfatti Contrary to popular misconceptions, although the local laws of classical physics have the same “tensor” and/or “spinor” form for all motions of detectors measuring all the observable possessed by the “test particles”, there are privileged dynamical motions of the test particles in Einstein’s two theories of relativity special 1905 and general 1916. This was in Einstein’s words “My happiest thought.” These privileged motions are called “geodesic” motions or “world lines.” Test particles are distinguished from “source particles.” It is an approximation that test particles do not significantly modify the fields acting on them. They are, strictly speaking, a useful contradiction of the metaphysical principle of no action of Alice on Bob without a direct “back-reaction” of Bob on Alice. Massless point test particles in what physicists call the “classical limit” move on “null” or “lightlike” geodesics. Test particles with mass m move on timelike geodesics that are inside the “light cone” formed by all the light rays that might be emitted from that test particle if it were electrically charged and if it were really accelerating. The latter is a “counter-factual” statement. Look that up on Google.  The key point is that Alice is weightless when traveling on a timelike geodesic inside her two local light cones past and future. There are no real forces F acting on Alice. On the contrary, Bob who is measuring Alice with a detector (aka “measuring apparatus”) need not be on another timelike geodesic. He can be off-geodesic because real forces can be acting on him causing him to feel weight. The real forces acting on Bob appear as “fictitious” “inertial pseudo-forces” acting on Alice from Bob’s frame of reference. The only real forces in nature that we know about in 2013 are the electro-magnetic, the weak and the strong. Gravity is not a real force in Einstein’s theory. Gravity is one of the fictitious forces described above. Real forces on test particles, unlike all fictitious forces on them, are not universal. Fictitious inertial pseudo-forces that appear to, but are not really acting on the observed test particles all depend on the mass m of the test particle.
  • Jack Sarfatti The operational litmus test to distinguish a real force from a fictitious inertial pseudo-force is what an accelerometer rigidly clamped to the observed test particle measures. I repeat, because many engineers and even some physicists get muddled on what should be an elementary physics idea: Einstein’s “happiest thought” that led to his general theory of relativity in the first place, was his epiphany that an accelerometer clamped to a freely falling object on a timelike geodesic path (i.e., world line) would not register any g-force (i.e., any weight). The apparent kinematical acceleration of a freely falling test particle seen in the gravitational field of the surface of Earth is because the surface of rigid Earth at every point on it has radially outward proper tensor acceleration whilst the test particle itself has zero proper tensor acceleration. The accelerometer on the test particle registers zero. The accelerometer at a point on the surface of Earth registers the “weight” an object of rest mass m clamped to it. That every point on a rigid sphere is accelerating radially outward is hard for common sense engineers and laymen to comprehend. It seems crazy to common sense, but that is precisely the counter-intuitive Alice in Wonderland reality of Einstein’s curved spacetime that is battle-tested by very accurate experiments. Consequently, if Alice and Eve are each on separate timelike geodesics very close to each other and if Bob who is not on a timelike geodesic of his own due to real forces acting on him, then Alice and Eve will have the same kinematical acceleration relative to Bob and they will both feel weightless though Bob feels weight – also called “g-force.” This causes a lot of confusion, especially to aerospace missile engineers and high-energy particle physicists, because Newton did consider gravity to be a real force, but Einstein did not. Gravity is not a force. Gravity is the curvature tensor of four-dimensional space-time. What Newton thought of as a real gravity force, is demoted to a fictitious inertial pseudo-force in Einstein’s theory. In the language of the late John Archibald Wheeler, gravity is a “force without Force”. The best local frame invariant way to think about gravity in an objective local frame-independent way is the pattern of both light like and timelike geodesics whose source is the “stress-energy density tensor field” Tuv of matter. By matter we mean spin 1/2 leptons, quarks, and the spin 1 electromagnetic-weak-strong gauge bosons as well as the spin 0 Higgs vacuum superconductor field that formed only when our observable piece of the multiverse called the “causal diamond” popped out of the false vacuum about 13.7 billion years ago.
  • Jack Sarfatti http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_saucer 
    “For years it was thought that the Schwarzschild spacetime did in fact exhibit some sort of radial singularity at r = 2GM/c2. Eventually physicists came to realize that it was not Schwarzschild spacetime th
    ...See More
    A flying saucer (also referred to as a flying disc) is a type of described flying craft with a disc or saucer-shaped body, commonly used generically to refer to any anomalous flying object. In 1947 the term was coined but was later officially supplanted by the United States Air Force in 1952 with th...
  • Jack Sarfatti A firewall is a hypothetical phenomenon where an observer that falls into an old black hole encounters high-energy quanta at (or near) the event horizon. The "firewall" phenomenon was proposed in 2012 by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully [1] as a possible solution to an apparent inconsistency in black hole complementarity. The proposal is often referred to as the "AMPS" firewall, an acronym for the names of the authors of the 2012 paper. However, the occurrence of this phenomenon was proposed eleven years earlier by Friedwardt Winterberg,[2] and is very different from Hawking radiation.
    The firewall hypothesis, like black hole complementarity, is quantum gravitational. It arises (in part) from the conjecture that once an old black hole has emitted a sufficiently large amount of Hawking radiation, the mixed quantum state of the black hole is highly entangled with the state of the Hawking radiation thus far emitted. Firewalls are a dramatic change from the usual assumption that quantum gravity is unimportant except in regions of spacetime where the radius of spacetime curvature is on the order of the Planck length; large black holes have low curvature near the event horizon.
    However, according to Winterberg,[2] a correct theory of quantum gravity cannot ignore the zero point vacuum energy. Because it must be cut off at the Planck energy, Lorentz invariance is violated at high energies, creating a preferred reference system in which the zero-point energy is at rest. In approaching and crossing the event horizon at the velocity of light in the preferred reference system, an elliptic differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over in a hyperbolic differential equation where there is no such equilibrium, with all matter disintegrating into gamma rays without loss of information or violation of unitarity, as it has been observed in cosmic gamma ray bursters.
    The firewall idea seems to be related to the "energetic curtain" around a black hole, proposed by Braunstein,[3] but it depends on the unproven conjecture that a black hole entropy is entirely entropy of entanglementhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firewall_(physics)
    A firewall is a hypothetical phenomenon where an observer that falls into an old black hole encounters high-energy quanta at (or near) the event horizon. The "firewall" phenomenon was proposed in 2012 by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully[1] as a possible solution to an apparent inconsistency i...
  • Jack Sarfatti “What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? … However, if we discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable by everyone, not just by a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason -- for then we should know the mind of God.” (P.193), A Brief History of Time.
    Rodrigo shows that the classical energy conditions and chronology protection arguments against time travel to the past as well as the quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy balanced by positive energy are not likely to be fatal barriers against stargate technology.
    Wikipedia has now become quite reliable for physics/math articles after a rocky start of several years especially on biographies of living movers and shakers. Rather than repeat standard content on technical jargon that is prerequisite to understanding this book I give URLs to Wikipedia and, at times, other explanations.
    The same idea appears in quantum theory in David Bohm’s interpretation. Orthodox quantum theory violates Wheeler’s philosophical principle of action and reaction. The quantum information field Q acts on the classical particles and fields without any direct reaction of the latter on the former. Then, and only then, is it impossible to use entanglement as a stand alone communication channel not requiring a classical signal key to decrypt the message at only one end of the entangled whole. In other words, “background independence” in Einstein’s 1916 general relativity is equivalent to entanglement signal nonlocality violating orthodox quantum theory. The non-dynamical spacetime background of Einstein’s 1905 special relativity is equivalent to the “no signaling” circular arguments of Abner Shimony’s “passion at a distance.”
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1302.6165v1.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_state
    With seven years of data, the WMAP cosmology satellite has refined the age of the universe and other key cosmic parameters. The results strengthen the "standard model" of inflationary cosmology.
  • Jack Sarfatti http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_curvature_tensor 
    Newton’s particle mechanics and Einstein’s 1905 special theory of rel
    ...See More
    In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor, or Riemann–Christoffel tensor after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel, is the most standard way to express curvature of Riemannian manifolds. It associates a tensor to each point of a Riemannian manifold (i....
On Sep 18, 2013, at 11:12 AM, Dean Radin <dradin@noetic.org> wrote:

This article on that same website is also very good. Apparently no one dares propose the possibility that nature as we observe it is literally shaped by our expectations:


I interpret the results of psi research as pointing toward the same possibility.

best wishes,

Chief Scientist, Institute of Noetic Sciences
Co-Editor-in-Chief, Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing
Author, Supernormal and other books
Personal website 

On Wed, Sep 18, 2013 at 8:08 AM, nick herbert <quanta@cruzio.com> wrote:
Thanks, Gaby.
This is not only a marvelous discovery
that I had never heard of
(I live in the woods after all)
but a beautifully written article
describing the discovery
and iys possible implications.


On Sep 18, 2013, at 2:48 AM, Jungle Girl wrote:

Complications in Physics Lend Support to Multiverse Hypothesis | Simons Foundation
Decades of confounding experiments have physicists considering a startling possibility: The universe might not make sense.
  • Jack Sarfatti Jim should have done more elementary calculations of simple cases in his book. I will not make the same pedagogical mistake in my book.

    Jim's Sciama vector theory of gravity which I soundly reject as beyond the fringe of plausibility as well as Einste
    in's tried and true battle tested tensor theory of gravity which I accept as The Word made Flesh from GOD(D) herself are BOTH classical field theories. Feynman diagrams
    Feynman diagram - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles.
    Motivation and history - Representation of physical reality
    are for quantum field theory and beyond, e.g. supergravity STING theory. 

    Of course, if one used classical field perturbation theory some remnant of Feynman's technique should survive. The effects of off-mass-shell virtual particles will be ignorable i.e. internal lines smeared over into a glob. However, the idea of using the amplitudehedron to compute solutions of nonlinear classical field theory might not be completely stupid? Jim's vector theory of gravity is relatively Mickey Mouse and does not need all of this fancy Dan math.

    MY VERSION of Jim's theory is very simple and does not need all his numbo jumbo about fictitious forces etc.

    One simply postulates in a Popper falsifiable manner:

    observed inertia = (Nonlocal Mach screening factor)(Local inertia)

    Local rest mass comes from several sources at different levels

    1) Higgs vacuum field for leptons, quarks, W bosons

    2) quantum chromodynamics for hadrons (confined ZPE of the quarks)

    3) standard low energy nuclear, atomic, solid state, chemical bond binding energy physics

    Finally we have the split

    (Nonlocal Mach screening factor) = Aharonov Destiny + Aharonov History

    The BACK FROM THE FUTURE DESTINY piece is the Wheeler-Feynman Hoyle-Narlikar-Cramer ADVANCED FUTURE LIGHT CONE INFLUENCE FUNCTIONAL constrained by our future dark energy TOTAL ABSORBER de Sitter event horizon (a hologram quantum computer).

    Similarly, for the RETARDED past light cone part constrained by our past particle horizon.

    OK now use plain vanilla Einstein GR

    Newton's 2nd law of TEST PARTICLE mechanics is

    DP/ds = F

    P = (Nonlocal Mach factor)(Local Inertia)V = (Phi)mV

    V = tensor 4 velocity of test particle

    D/ds = d/ds + (Levi-Civita DETECTOR terms)

    ds = proper time of test particle differential along its CLASSICAL world line

    (Levi-Civita DETECTOR terms) ~ 0 when the detector is on a timelike geodesic and is not rotating.

    d(Phi mV)/ds = (dPhi/ds)mV + Phi(dm/ds)V + (Phim)dV/ds

    This is only for timelike test particles NOT for PHOTONS!



    In addition there need be some classical field (from action) equations for Phi, but this Phi does not at all correspond to

    g00 = 1 - phi/c^2

    BTW on Jim's speed of light RED HERRING!

    classically ds = 0 and that's all one can really say correctly.

    In the general metric corresponding to an arbitrary timelike LNIF set of detectors

    ds^2 = g00c^2dt^2 + g0icdtdx^i + gijdx^idx^j

    for a classical optics light ray this is

    0 = g00c^2dt^2 + g0icdtdx^i + gijdx^idx^j

    i,j = 1,2,3

    If we define the PROPER LENGTH dL as

    dL^2 = gijdx^idx^j

    and PROPER TIME dT as

    dT^2 = g00dt^2

    then the light ray equation is

    0 = - c^2dT^2 + g0icdtdx^i + dL^2

    = - c^2dT^2 + g0ig00^-1/2cdTdx^i + dL^2

    You can always choose a local triad where gij = 0 if i =/= j and not change the dynamical physics

    define like Ray Chiao Ai = g0i

    Therefore, the light ray null geodesic equation is

    0 = - c^2dT^2 + g00^-1/2cdTA.dL + dL^2

    DEFINE c' = dL/dT

    Therefore, JIM IS WRONG! 

    0 = - c^2 + g00^-1/2A.c' + c'^2

    A.c' = cAcos(A,c')

    This is a SIMPLE quadratic equation for the speed of light that has two roots in general when A =/= 0.

    Also note the HORIZON SINGULARITY at g00 = 0

    c' = {-cAcos(A,c')g00^-1/2 +- [c^2A^2cos^2(A,c')/g00 + 4c^2]^1/2}/2

    = {c{Acos(A,c')/g00^1/2 +,- c[A^2cos^2/g00 + 4]^1/2}/2

    In the limit A -> 0 c' -> +,- c

    When A =/= 0 at a horizon we get two roots for c', i.e. 0 and infinity!
Error on p. 33 of Jim Woodward's Making Starships book (Springer-Verlag)
  • Jack Sarfatti Our future universe is dominated by the de Sitter metric.
    Using Jim's notation:

    g00 = 1 + phi/c^2

    phi = - 2r^2/A

    A is the area of our future horizon

    we are located at r = 0


    Jim's equation:

    phi/c^2 = 1 is the classical equation for an infinitely thin cosmic future event horizon with advanced back-from-the-future Wheeler-Feynman Hawking radiation peak black body wave length ~ A^1/2 contradicts his "vector" approximation to Einstein's tensor GR, which requires

    phi/c^2 << 1
    Begin forwarded message:

    From: Jonathan Post <jvospost3@gmail.com>
    Subject: Re: Serious conceptual error Jim makes on p. 33 of his book - in my opinion
    Date: September 12, 2013 7:07:33 PM PDT

    In any case, the universe is NOT flat:
    Evidence left over after the Big Bang may suggest a saddle-shaped universe.
    Originally published: 
    Sep 11 2013 - 5:00pm
    Charles Q. Choi, ISNS Contributor
    (ISNS) -- The shape of the universe may be dramatically different than before thought, a group of researchers now says.


John Cramer's paper in Jim Woodward's Starship book
Like ·  · Share
  • Jack Sarfatti 1) Cramer continues: “The propulsion effects observed so far are quite small, but not so small as to be useless … because of the G-in-denominator and their strong frequency dependence, the inertial transients can in principle produce very large propulsion forces. … Personal flying cars and reactionless heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit space vehicles cannot be ruled out …” That is precisely, what the good flying saucer evidence suggests. “ … the most interesting inertial transient … is the ‘second term,’ which is always negative and can in principle drive the inertial mass to zero or negative values … needed to stabilize wormholes and produce superluminal warp drives.” OK, here is the crux of Woodward’s conjectures that are beyond the fringe of mainstream physics today. For a long time I have wrestled with this. It seems obviously crackpot, so how can John Cramer take it seriously. Also Woodward is not a crackpot. So what was I missing? As Richard Feynman told me in his Cal Tech office in the late 1960’s. “What you cannot calculate yourself, you do not understand.” I saw a lot of nonsense about the reduction of inertial mass from the material binding energy, but of course, that really is nonsense, since it would destroy the material. Then it struck me. Analogous to Lenny Susskind’s “horizon complementarity” in his world hologram model, it all depends on who is looking. For example in the Alcubierre toy model for warp drive, Alice inside the warp bubble is not moving at all. More precisely, Alice is on a local timelike weightless zero g-force geodesic in her local tensor curvature field. In contrast, Bob outside the warp bubble of the starship “sees” superluminal speed of the starship. Similarly, in horizon complementarity, Bob far away from the black hole’s surface horizon never sees weightless Alice freely fall into the black hole on her radially inward timelike geodesic. Indeed, Alice’s image will appear to Bob to spread out all over the surface of the black hole. There is also the issue of a redshift.[i] Alice, however, will not feel anything unusual at the horizon if the classical equivalence principle[ii] is correct. – unless there is a firewall. Therefore, the apparent change in the inertia of the starship should only be seen by the external observer outside the warp bubble. Everything should appear quite normal inside the warp bubble. More precisely it is the nonlocal Mach screening factor C that changes not the intrinsic local inertia from the Higgs-Goldstone coherent vacuum superconductor field plus the confined real quarks in the virtual gluon/quark-antiquark plasma of SU3 quantum chromodynamics.[iii]

    [i] The gravity redshift only should apply for static LNIF emitters, for example, excited atoms of essentially fixed position (static equilibrium) in the Sun or emitters fixed in the Harvard tower etc.. Therefore, photons emitted by LIF electrons falling through the black hole surface horizon should not redshift if the equivalence principle is correct. A locally coincident static LNIF in the gravity curvature field outside the horizon will redshift.

    [ii] Special relativity works in a LIF.

    [iii] P = CmV = 4-momentum of center of mass of starship seen by external observer

    F = DP/ds = CDP/ds + PdC/ds Newton’s 2nd law of motion

    D/ds is the covariant derivative relative to the starships invariant proper time along its local worldline

    F = external real 4-force on starship’s center of mass

    The Woodward propellantless propulsion term is PdC/ds as far as I can make sense of his proposal. Propellantless propulsion corresponds to F = 0. 

    In contrast, the observer inside the warp bubble sees C = 1 and dC/dt = 0.

1)   John Cramer describes Woodward’s core thesis. “Let’s consider the problem of reactionless propulsion first. Woodward extended the work of Sciama in investigating the origins of inertia in the framework of general relativity by consideration of time-dependent effects that occur when energy is in flow while an object is being accelerated. The result is surprising. It predicts large time-dependent variations in inertia, the tendency of matter to resist acceleration.”  This is the local tensor proper acceleration of the rest-massive test particle pushed off a timelike geodesic of the local curvature tensor field caused by real not fictitious forces.  The fictitious forces appear to act on the test particle, but in reality they don’t. They describe real forces on the measuring device observing the test particle. The Levi-Civita connection in the mathematics of general relativity describes the real forces on the observing measuring apparatus not the test object being measured. “The inertial transient effects predicted by the Sciama-Woodward calculations are unusual … in that they have G in the denominator, and dividing by a small number produces a large result.”    John Cramer definitely thinks that James Woodward’s inertial transient data is real “convincing evidence,” although it’s only “tens of micronewton level thrusts delivered to a precision torsion balance.” It’s important to understand that “thrusts” are not weightless warp drives free of time dilation relative to the clock-synchronized external observer left behind. Supposing best-case scenario, that Woodward’s effect is real and can be scaled up by many powers of ten. It’s still no good to get to the stars because of time dilation and the blueshifts of stuff in the way of the front of the starship. It would be good for airplanes and spacecraft on near solar system missions – if it really worked.


My review of Jim Woodward's Making Starships book - V1 under construction
  • Jack Sarfatti Sarfatti’s Commentaries on James F. Woodward’s book 
    Making Starships and Star Gates 
    The Science of Interstellar Transport and Absurdly Benign Wormholes

    The book has many good insights except for some ambiguous statements regarding:

    1) The equivalence principle that is the foundation of Einstein’s theory of the gravitational field. This seems to be due to the author’s not clearly distinguishing between local frame invariant proper acceleration and frame dependent coordinate acceleration. Thus, the author says that Newton’s gravity force is eliminated in an “accelerating frame.” In fact, it is eliminated in a Local Inertial Frame (LIF) that has zero proper acceleration, though it has coordinate acceleration relative to the surface of Earth for example. All points of the rigid spherical surface of Earth have non-zero proper accelerations pointing radially outward. This violates common sense and confuses even some physicists as well as engineers not to mention laymen. It is a fact of the Alice in Wonderland topsy-turvy surreal world of the post-modern physics of Einstein’s relativity especially when combined with the faster-than-light and back from the future entanglement of particles and fields in quantum theory and beyond. 
    2) I find the author’s discussion of fictitious inertial pseudo forces puzzling. I include the centripetal force as a fictitious force in the limit of Newton’s particle mechanics sans Einstein’s local inertial frame dragging from rotating sources. That is, every local frame artifact that is inside the Levi-Civita connection is a fictitious inertial pseudo force. This includes, Coriolis, centrifugal, Euler, and most importantly Newton’s gravity force that is not a real force. The terms inside the Levi-Civita connection are not felt by the test particle under observation. Instead, they describe real forces acting on the observer’s local rest frame. A real force acts locally on a test particle’s accelerometer. It causes an accelerometer’s pointer to move showing a g-force. In contrast, Baron Munchausen sitting on a cannonball in free fall is weightless. This was essentially Einstein’s “happiest thought” leading him to the equivalence principle the cornerstone of his 1916 General Relativity of the Gravitational Field. 
    3) A really serious flaw in the book is the author’s dependence on Dennis Sciama’s electromagnetic equations for gravity. In fact, these equations only apply approximately in the weak field limit of Einstein’s field equations in the background-dependent case using the absolute non-dynamical globally-flat Minkowski space-time with gravity as a tiny perturbation. The author uses these equations way out of their limited domain of validity. In particular, the Sciama equations cannot describe the two cosmological horizons past and future of our dark energy accelerating expanding observable universe. What we can see with our telescopes is only a small patch (aka “causal diamond”) of a much larger “inflation bubble” corresponding to Max Tegmark’s “Level 1” in his four level classification of the use of “multiverse” and “parallel universes.” Our two cosmological horizons, past and future, that are thin spherical shells of light with us inside them at their exact centers may in fact be hologram computer screens projecting us as 3D images in a virtual reality quantum computer simulation. This is really a crazy idea emerging from Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Seth Lloyd and others. Is it crazy enough to be true? 
  • Jack Sarfatti 4) John Cramer’s Foreword: I agree with Cramer that it’s too risky in the long run for us to be confined to the Earth and even to this solar system. British Astronomer Royal, Lord Martin Rees in his book “Our Final Hour” gives detailed reasons. Of course if a vacuum strangelet develops like Kurt Vonnegut’s “Ice-9”, then our entire observable universe can be wiped out, our causal diamond and beyond shattered, and there is no hope. That is essentially the apocalyptic worst-case scenario of the Bible’s “Revelations” and we will not dwell on it any further. Let’s hope it’s not a precognitive remote viewing like what the CIA observed in the Stanford Research Institute studies in the 1970’s.  Cramer cites the NASA-DARPA 100 Year Star Ship Project that I was involved with in the first two meetings. Cramer’s text is in quotes and italics. There is “little hope of reaching the nearby stars in a human lifetime using any conventional propulsion techniques … the universe is simply too big, and the stars are too far away. … What is needed is either trans-spatial shortcuts such as wormholes to avoid the need to traverse the enormous distances or a propulsion technique that somehow circumvents Newton’s third law and does not require the storage, transport and expulsion of large volumes of reaction mass.”
    Yes, indeed. I conjecture as a working hypothesis based on the UFO evidence that traversable wormhole stargate time travel machines are the only way to go with warp drive used only as a secondary mechanism at low speeds mainly for silent hovering near the surfaces of planets and for dogfights with conventional aerospace craft. The stargates do not have the blue shift problem that the Alcubierre warp drive has although the Natario warp drive does not have the blue shift problem (high-energy collisions with particles and radiation in the path of the starship). Newton’s third law that every force acting on a material object has an equal and opposite inertial reaction force on the source of that force is a conservation law that follows from symmetry Lie groups of transformations in parameters of the dynamical action of the entire closed system of source and material object. This is a very general organizing principle of theoretical physics known as Noether’s theorem for global symmetries in which the transformations are the same everywhere for all times in the universe. For example:
    Space Translation Symmetry Linear Momentum Conservation
    Time Translation Symmetry Energy Conservation
    Space-Space Rotation Symmetry Angular Momentum Conservation
    Space-Time Rotation Symmetry
    Internal U1 EM Force Symmetry Conserve 1 Electric Charge
    Internal SU2 Weak Force Symmetry Conserve 3 Weak Flavor Charges
    Internal SU3 Strong Force Symmetry Conserve 8 Strong Color Charges
  • Jack Sarfatti In a propellantless propulsion system without the rocket ejection of real particles and/or radiation one must include the gravity curvature field (dynamical space-time itself) as a source and sink of linear momentum. Furthermore, if we include quantum corrections to the classical fields there is the remote possibility of using virtual particle zero point fluctuations inside the vacuum as a source and sink of linear momentum. However, the conventional wisdom is that this kind of controllable small-scale metastable vacuum phase transition is impossible in principle and to do so would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics (extracting work from an absolute zero temperature heat reservoir). Even if we could do the seemingly impossible, propellantless propulsion while necessary is not sufficient for a true warp drive. A true warp drive must be weightless (zero g-force) timelike geodesic and without time dilation for the crew relative to the external observer outside the warp bubble that they were initially clock synchronized with. Localizing global symmetries requires the addition of compensating gauge connections in a fiber bundle picture of the universe. Indeed, the original global symmetry group is a smaller subgroup of the local symmetry group. The gauge connections define parallel transport of tensor/spinor fields. They correspond to the interactions between the several kinds of charges of the above symmetries. I shall go into more details of this elsewhere. Indeed localizing the above spacetime symmetries corresponds to generalizations of Einstein’s General Relativity as a local gauge theory. For example, localizing the space and time global translational symmetries means that the Lie group transformations at different events (places and times) in the universe are independent of each other. If one believes in the classical special relativity postulate of locality that there are no faster-than-light actions at a distance, then the transformations must certainly be independent of each other between pairs of spacelike separated events that cannot be connected by a light signal. However, the local gauge principle is much stronger, because it applies to pairs of events that can be connected not only by a light signal, but also by slower-than-light timelike signals. This poses a paradox when we add quantum entanglement. Aspect’s experiment and others since then, show that faster-than-light influences do in fact exist in the conditional probabilities (aka correlations) connecting observed eigenvalues of quantum observable operators independently chosen by Alice and Bob when spacelike separated. I shall return to this in more detail elsewhere. Finally, we have the P.W. Anderson’s anti-reductionist “More is different” emergence of complex systems of real particles in their quantum ground states with quasi-particles and collective mode excitations in soft condensed matter in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. This corresponds to spontaneous symmetry breaking of the quantum vacuum’s virtual particles, in its high energy standard model analog, to the Higgs-Goldstone “God Particle” now found at ~ 125 Gev in CERN’s LHC that gives rest masses to leptons and quarks as well as to the three weak radioactivity force spin 1 gauge W-bosons though not to the single spin 1 photon gauge boson and the eight spin strong force gluon gauge bosons. In this quantum field theory picture, the near field non-radiating interactions among the leptons and quarks are caused by the exchange of virtual spacelike (tachyonic faster-than-light off-mass-shell) gauge bosons continuously randomly emitted and absorbed by the leptons and quarks. To make matters more complicated unlike the single rest massless U1 photon, the three weak rest massive SU2 W bosons and the eight strong rest massless SU3 gluons carry their respective Lie algebra charges, therefore, they self-interact. A single virtual gluon can split into two gluons for example. The SU3 quark-quark-gluon interaction gets stronger at low energy longer separations. This is called quantum chromodynamic confinement and it explains why we do not see free quarks in the present epoch of our causal diamond observable universe patch of the multiverse. Free quarks were there in a different quantum vacuum thermodynamic phase shortly after the Alpha Point chaotic inflation creation of our observable universe that we see with telescopes etc. Indeed, most of the rest mass of protons and neutrons comes from the confined Heisenberg uncertainty principle kinetic energy of the three real confined up and down quarks and their plasma cloud of virtual zero point gluons and virtual quark-antiquark pairs. The Higgs Yukawa interaction rest masses of three bound real quarks is about 1/20 or less than the total hadronic rest masses.

    The author, James F. Woodward (JFW), introduces Mach’s Principle though in an ambiguous way to my mind. He says that the computation of the rest mass from local quantum field theory as has been in fact accomplished for hadrons by MIT Nobel Laureate, Frank Wilczek et-al using supercomputers is not sufficient to explain the inertia of Newton’s Second Law of Particle Mechanics. This does sound like Occult Astrology at first glance, but we do have the 1940 Wheeler-Feynman classical electrodynamics in which radiation reaction is explained as a back-from-the-future retro causal advanced influence from the future absorber on the past emitter in a globally self-consistent loop in time. Indeed, Feynman’s path integral quantum theory grew out of this attempt. Hoyle and Narlikar, and John Cramer have extended the original classical Wheeler-Feynman theory to quantum theory. Indeed, the zero point virtual photons causing spontaneous emission decay of excited atomic electron states can be interpreted as a back from the future effect. The electromagnetic field in the classical Wheeler-Feynman model did not have independent dynamical degrees of freedom, but in the Feynman diagram quantum theory they do. However, the retro causal feature survives. Therefore the only way I can make sense of JFWs fringe physics proposal is to make the following conjecture. Let m0 be the renormalized rest mass of a real particle computed in the standard model of local quantum field theory. Then, the observed rest mass m0’ equals a dimensionless nonlocal coefficient C multiplied by the local m0 renormalized rest mass. Mach’s Principle is then C = 0 in an empty universe of only real test particles without any sources causing spacetime to bend. Furthermore, C splits into past history retarded and future destiny advanced pieces. Now is there any Popper falsifiable test of this excess baggage?
  • Jack Sarfatti 1) Springer-Praxis Books in Space Exploration (2013)
    2) Einstein in Zurich over one hundred years ago read of a house painter falling off his ladder saying he felt weightless.
    3) I have since disassociated myself from that project, as have other hard
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  • Jack Sarfatti 4) Roughly speaking, for particle mechanics, the dynamical action is the time integral of the kinetic energy minus the potential energy. The classical physics action principle is that the actual path is an extremum in the sense of the calculus of variations relative to all nearby possible paths with the same initial and final conditions. Richard P. Feynman generalized this classical idea to quantum theory where the actual extremum path corresponds to constructive interference of complex number classical action phases one for each possible path. There are more complications for velocity-dependent non-central forces and there is also the issue of initial and final conditions. The action is generalized to classical fields where one must use local kinetic and potential analog densities and integrate the field Lagrangian density over the 4D spacetime region bounded by initial history and final teleological destiny 3D hypersurfaces boundary constraints. Indeed, Yakir Aharonov has generalized this to quantum theory in which there are back-from-the-future retro causal influences on present weak quantum measurements made between the past initial and future final boundary constraints. Indeed, in our observable expanding accelerating universe causal diamond, these boundary constraints, I conjecture, are our past cosmological particle horizon from the moment of chaotic inflation leading to the hot Big Bang, together with our future dark energy de Sitter event horizon. Both of them are BIT pixelated 2D hologram computer screens with us as IT voxelated “weak measurement” 3D hologram images projected from them. The horizon pixel BIT quanta of area are of magnitude (~10^-33 cm or 10^19 Gev)^2. The interior bulk voxel IT quanta of volume are of magnitude (~10^-13 cm or 1 Gev)^3. This ensures that the number N of BIT horizon pixels equals the number of IT interior voxels in a one-to-one correspondence. The actually measured dark energy density is proportional to the inverse fourth power of the geometric mean of the smallest quantum gravity Planck length with the largest Hubble-sized scale of our future de Sitter causal diamond ~ 10^28 cm. This, when combined with the Unruh effect, corresponds to the Stefan-Boltzmann law of black body radiation that started quantum physics back in 1900. However, this redshifted Hawking horizon blackbody radiation must be coming back from our future de Sitter cosmological horizon not from our past particle horizon.
  • Jack Sarfatti 5) Localizing the four space and time translations corresponds to Einstein’s general coordinate transformations that are now gauge transformations defining an equivalence class of physically identical representations of the same curvature tensor field. However, the compensating gauge connection there corresponds to torsion fields not curvature fields. The curvature field corresponds to localizing the three space-space rotations and the three space-time Lorentz boost rotations together. Einstein’s General Relativity in final form (1916) has zero torsion with non-zero curvature. However, T.W.B. Kibble from Imperial College, London in 1961 showed how to get the Einstein-Cartan torsion + curvature extension of Einstein’s 1916 curvature-only model by localizing the full 10-parameter Poincare symmetry Lie group of Einstein’s 1905 Special Relativity. The natural geometric objects to use are the four Cartan tetrads that correspond to Local Inertial Frame (LIF) detector/observers that are not rotating about their Centers of Mass (COM) that are on weightless zero g-force timelike geodesics. Zero torsion is then imposed as an ad-hoc constraint to regain Einstein’s 1916 model as a limiting case. The ten parameter Poincare Lie group is subgroup of the fifteen parameter conformal group that adds four constant proper acceleration hyperbolic Wolfgang Rindler horizon boosts and one dilation scale transformation that corresponds to Herman Weyl’s original failed attempt to unify gravity with electromagnetism. The spinor Dirac square roots of the conformal group correspond to Roger Penrose’s “twistors.”