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Tag » Second Law of Thermodynamics
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Jack Sarfatti There is a creative tension between nonlocal entanglement signaling and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Therefore, chinks in the armor of the Second Law formulations from the mid-19th Century are of extreme interest for practical as well as theoretical reasons.
Dan Sheehan wrote in Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 459–480, 2008 0892-3310/08

"Energy makes the world go round—physically, chemically, thermodynamically, industrially, economically, geopolitically. Current global consumption stands at roughly 1.5 x 10^13 Watts, equivalent to the output of about fifteen thousand large nuclear power plants, or comparable to detonating a WWII-style atomic bomb every five seconds. This figure is expected to grow 50% in the next 20 years. About 20% of the world economy is devoted to the discovery and extraction of fuels, and to the generation, distribution, and consumption of energy. Economies are defined by it; wars are fought over it; nations rise and fall by it.
Presently, energy is derived primarily from non-renewable oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium, and to a lesser degree from renewable hydroelectricity, solar, wind and biofuels. The burning of fossil fuels is implicated in environmental pollution, global warming, climate change, and the degradation of the biosphere, all of which are expected to worsen in coming decades [4]. Recently, the tightening of global energy supplies has been linked to food shortages, affecting hundreds of millions of humans worldwide.

In fact, we are surrounded by a virtually limitless reservoir of energy: thermal energy. The total thermal energy content of the Earth’s atmosphere is about 10^24J; the oceans’ capacity is 500 times greater, and the Earth’s crust holds an order of magnitude still more. At civilization’s current rate of use, it would take millions of years to expend this amount, and even then, it is being replenished by solar radiation and the decay of radionuclides in the crust orders of magnitude faster than humanity could deplete it; in other words, the amount of thermal energy is effectively limitless. In magnitude, all the energy we could ever use already surrounds us; in form, however, it is largely beyond our reach – like a mirage in the desert – because of what is perhaps the most depressing law of nature: the second law of thermodynamics.

The second law has been called ‘‘the supreme law of nature’’ [5]. It governs our lives from the moments of our conception until our deaths; nearly every system in the universe, from an atomic nucleus to a galactic supercluster, is subject to it; the cosmos itself lives – and will eventually die – by it. Even the direction that time progresses, from past to present to future, has been attributed to it [6–9]. Among physical laws, arguably none is better tested than the second law. It has been verified in countless experiments for more than 150 years. Most scientists consider its universality beyond reproach; even to question it invites ridicule and ruin. Nonetheless, over the last 10–15 years, the second law has come under unprecedented scrutiny. More than 60 mainstream journal articles, monographs and conference proceedings have raised dozens of theoretical and experimentally-testable challenges to its universal status – more than the sum total during its previous 150-year history. From a Kuhnian perspective this suggests a paradigm shift might be on the horizon [10].

Given its central importance to the sciences, engineering and technology, in view of these recent theoretical developments, and in light of the current dilemmas facing world energy and environmental policies, it is timely to look ahead to possible changes that might result from second law violation. This paper briefly reviews recent second law challenges, and examines in detail one for which laboratory experiments are currently being mounted. Possible economic, geopolitical and environmental outcomes of second law violation are considered."


Experimental Measurements of Electric Fields in Diodic Vacuum Gaps: Toward a Second Law Challenge
D.P. Sheehan and J.H. Wright†
Department of Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA
†Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,University of San Diego, San Diego, CA
Abstract. Over the last ten years, the researchers at USD have investigated a series of challenges to the second law of thermodynamics that involve the exploitation of intense vacuum electric fields generated by solid-state diodic contacts [1, 2, 3]. Although theoretical arguments and numerical simulations supported the existence of these fields, experimental verification had been lacking. This article reviews the theoretical basis for these diodic electric fields and details recent laboratory experiments that have verified their location, intensity, and rechargability.

Keywords: second law of thermodynamics, nonequilibrium, Maxwell’s demon, solid state physics, semiconductors, MEMS, NEMS
PACS: 05.70.-a, 05.70.Ln, 85.85.+j

The experiments described here were not intended to test the second law per se; rather, they were designed to investigate the predicted electric fields upon which this class of second law challenges depend. The dynamic cantilevers were essentially carried through their work cycle; however, the cantilevers were too stiff and their mechanical time
constants too ill-matched to the system’s electrical time constant for electromechanical resonance to be achieved. Also, the gap surfaces were contaminated and not constructed for effective contact, discharge, and long-term wear. It is also doubtful whether the mechanical quality factors were sufficient for sustaining oscillation.

Next generation test chips have been designed to overcome these shortcomings, and are currently awaiting fabrication. As before, these solid-state oscillators will rely solely
on diodic electric fields for power. They will operate in high vacuum so as to minimize oxidation and surface contamination. Electrostatic pressures are expected to a factor of 10 times larger than in the present experiments, and their Qs are predicted to be sufficient for sustained oscillation. Standard double-cantilevers as well as new proprietary oscillator designs will be incorporated into the new chips, along with an adjustable resistor bank so as to permit tuning of the electrical RC time constant of the circuit. The cantilever springs will operate in the multi-kHz range. Diagnosis will be accomplished by laser reflection and transmission. Sustained electromechanical oscillations that generate any sort of coherent energy, e.g., sound or vibration, would constitute a de facto violation of the second law."

a few seconds ago

From: JACK SARFATTI <Sarfatti@PacBell.net>
Subject: [Starfleet Command] Re: physics world
Date: August 2, 2012 2:23:04 PM PDT
To: Exotic Physics <exoticphysics@mail.softcafe.net>
Reply-To: SarfattiScienceSeminars@yahoogroups.com

On Aug 2, 2012, at 1:16 PM, Brian Josephson <bdj10@cam.ac.uk> wrote:

One of these people looks a bit familiar :-)



Brian D. Josephson
Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Cambridge
Director, Mind–Matter Unification Project
WWW: http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~bdj10
Tel. +44(0)1223 337260/337254

thanks Brian :-)

However, we may have yet the last laugh regarding entanglement nonlocal signaling

Subquantum Information and Computation
Antony Valentini
(Submitted on 11 Mar 2002 (v1), last revised 12 Apr 2002 (this version, v2))
It is argued that immense physical resources - for nonlocal communication, espionage, and exponentially-fast computation - are hidden from us by quantum noise, and that this noise is not fundamental but merely a property of an equilibrium state in which the universe happens to be at the present time. It is suggested that 'non-quantum' or nonequilibrium matter might exist today in the form of relic particles from the early universe. We describe how such matter could be detected and put to practical use. Nonequilibrium matter could be used to send instantaneous signals, to violate the uncertainty principle, to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states without disturbing them, to eavesdrop on quantum key distribution, and to outpace quantum computation (solving NP-complete problems in polynomial time).

Comments:    10 pages, Latex, no figures. To appear in 'Proceedings of the Second Winter Institute on Foundations of Quantum Theory and Quantum Optics: Quantum Information Processing', ed. R. Ghosh (Indian Academy of Science, Bangalore, 2002). Second version: shortened at editor's request; extra material on outpacing quantum computation (solving NP-complete problems in polynomial time)
Subjects:    Quantum Physics (quant-ph)
Journal reference:    Pramana - J. Phys. 59 (2002) 269-277
DOI:    10.1007/s12043-002-0117-1
Report number:    Imperial/TP/1-02/15
Cite as:    arXiv:quant-ph/0203049v2

Even the Second Law of Thermodynamics is on the edge of The Abyss.

[PDF] Experimental Challenges to the Second Law of Thermodynamics
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(c) 2009 Paradigm Energy Research Corporation. Experimental Challenges to the.Second Law of Thermodynamics. Daniel P. Sheehan. Physics, University of ...

Saviours of physics? (fair use excerpts from Physics World)

The period Kaiser describes was certainly a momentous one for US physics. ...
In 1975 two graduate students at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Elizabeth Rauscher and George Weissman, founded the Fundamental Fysiks Group (FFG) as a society for investigating such problems. Other main members of the group included Jack Sarfatti and Fred Alan Wolf, who had both resigned from posts at San Diego State College after the Reagan cuts. They were joined by Saul-Paul Sirag, whom Kaiser describes as "a bearded, wild-haired apostle of the hip group", and Nick Herbert, who once attended a job interview with an electronics manufacturer "looking like an insane hippy" – prompting the manager to insist he be screened by a San Francisco psychologist before he could be appointed. ...

In the 2010s Clauser's work may gain him a Nobel prize. In the 1970s it rendered him unemployable in academia. Selectors felt that his work did not constitute proper physics, and for much of his career he has produced his often cutting-edge research first in institutes such as the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and later as a scientific entrepreneur, performing important work on medical imaging. ...

In his book, Kaiser, a science historian at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, asks why this work has disappeared from history. The answer is fairly clear. Bell's work was straight physics: he showed that the quantum theory of entangled pairs of photons or electrons contradicts local realism. Many members of the FFG, in contrast, were more interested in extending the concept of non-locality to include the possibility of clairvoyance, extrasensory perception and psychokinesis. To this end, they lent their support to the spoon-bending antics of the magician Uri Geller and became fervent advocates of Eastern religions. Similarly, while the Nobel laureate Eugene Wigner had suggested that consciousness collapsed wave-functions at a measurement, FFG members extended such study to include transcendental meditation, mysticism, séances and Tarot cards. And of course, everything was washed down with lashings of LSD.

Kaiser shows that for many FFG members, renunciation of conformity did not result in continuous poverty. True, Sirag worked as a night watchman for a lengthy period, and Herbert had spells as a dishwasher and on public assistance. But they also obtained grants totalling $20m from the CIA, which was convinced that the Soviets were ahead in the crucial fields of mind reading and mind control. In addition, the group basked in the attention of several fascinated and deep-pocketed millionaires and celebrities. ...

Kaiser does describe some positives about the FFG. For example, Herbert wrote excellent and very well-known books on physics and human consciousness, while his proof of Bell's theorem is perhaps the simplest and clearest yet found, although he left a gap in logic to be filled in by others. And even some of their incorrect results had value: Herbert's proofs of faster-than-light communication, clever as they were, were shown to be incorrect by the production of the no-cloning theorem, which they violated. This theorem is now at the heart of quantum cryptography....

Andrew Whitaker is a physicist at Queen's University Belfast. His latest book is The New Quantum Age

SSE Talks - Challenges to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - Daniel... http://t.co/pGcKMy6c
http://www.scientificexploration.org ----------------------------------- vOver the last 15 years the absolute status of the second law of thermodynamics has ...