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Title: A second high energy Hawking radiation predicted
Abstract: Hawking's horizon surface area-entropy A black body radiation peaks at wavelength ~ A^1/2 ~ Unruh temperature T^-1 for distant observers This is not the complete story. There should be a second asymptotic redshifted higher Unruh temperature component with peak wavelength ~ proper quantum thickness of the horizon ~ geometric mean of UV cutoff L with A^1/2) = (LA^1/2)^1/2 with energy density ~ T^4 ~ hc/L^2A. The two Hawking surface and thickness radiations form a Carnot limited heat engine. L = Lp corresponds to random black body gravity waves. L ~ h/mc for virtual electron-positron pairs stuck to the horizon corresponds to far field thermal photons. These back of the envelope heuristic shortcuts apply both to observer independent black hole horizons as well as observer-dependent past and future cosmological horizons bounding the causal diamond. In the case of gravity wave thermal Hawking thickness radiation hc/Lp^2A is the observed dark energy density if we use the future deSitter horizon entropy A. The Unruh effect suggests that the w = + 1/3 black body radiation (gravity or EM) for accelerating detectors corresponds to w = -1 for the distant local inertial frame detectors.
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James F. Woodward's book "Making Starships and Stargates" Ch 1
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  • Ronon Rex likes this.
  • Jack Sarfatti15) Woodward’s Chapter 1: Newton’s rotating bucket. I agree with Rovelli in his book “Quantum Gravity” Ch. 2 that we do not need Mach’s Principle here. Everything is local field theory. The extended test particle, in this case Newton’s bucket filled with water on a twisted cord will behave in the same way even if the universe is empty. The water surface will go concave independent of the distant matter of the stars and beyond. This is because special relativity’s globally flat Minkowski spacetime is a solution of Einstein’s general relativity field equations – even if unstable that is not relevant here. Therefore, the volume elements of the rotating water are being pushed off the timelike geodesics of Minkowski spacetime with non-zero radially inward centripetal proper acceleration by the real electrical forces of the material. Of course there is no obvious way to Popper falsify this issue. With regard to p. 22 on whether we should use the virtual spacelike spin 2 graviton “force” picture against a non-dynamical background-dependent globally flat Minkowski background. Kaluza and Klein tried to extend the equivalence principle, to geometrize the electromagnetic force by introducing an extra curled up dimension of space. This led to modern day controversial superstring theory, which not only introduces six extra space-dimensions (seven in M-theory) but makes the space a non-commuting matrix space. Feynman showed in his Cal Tech course on gravity, that one can apply his QED Feynman diagrams to the spin 2 tensor field on Minkowski space, but that we need to sum an infinite number of his tree diagrams to arrive at Einstein’s gravity field equations as a non-perturbative emergent collective effect similar to the “More is different” (P.W. Anderson) emergence of the Higgs-Goldstone spontaneous broken U1 gauge symmetry ground state of the BCS superconductor. There is also the issue of the non-tree diagrams with closed vacuum loops with problems of renormalizability. Similar problems arose with the weak-strong spin 1 Yang-Mills gauge theory. G. ‘tHooft solved that with spontaneous broken symmetry of the vacuum. Why does that not also work for spin 2 gravity? Einstein’s 1916 general relativity corresponds to the local gauging of the globally rigid ten-parameter Poincare Lie symmetry group of his 1905 special relativity. As shown by T.W.B. Kibble at Imperial College, London in 1961, this gives the extended Einstein-Cartan theory with two independent dynamical curvature and torsion fields. Curvature comes from localizing the six-parameter Lorentz space-time rotation subgroup generated by angular momentum and boosts. Curvature corresponds to disclination topological defects on a “world crystal lattice” (Hagen Kleinert, Free University of Berlin). Torsion comes from localizing the four-parameter translation group generated by the 4-momentum. Torsion corresponds to disclination defects in the world crystal lattice. Einstein’s 1916 model is the limiting case of Einstein-Cartan with the adhoc constraint of zero dynamical torsion put in by hand. Indeed, these local translations are precisely the general curvilinear coordinate transformations of Einstein’s 1916 papers that describe the actual relationships between physically coincident timelike massive observers with proper accelerations from real forces pushing them off local timelike geodesics. The presence or absence of local tensor curvature is not directly relevant. The dynamical background independent curvature field of course bends the timelike and lightlike (null) geodesics away from what they would be counterfactually in nondynamical Minkowski spacetime. Globally flat Minkowski spacetime is very special because it allows global frames of reference that extend over the whole universe. This is not possible when there are real tensor curvature gravity fields. Now we can only use local frames of reference, either local inertial LIFs (“frefos” Lenny Susskind) or local non-inertial LNIFs (“fidos” Lenny Susskind). Furthermore, we can only compare local frames that are physically coincident – with proper separations small compared to the locally varying radii of curvature. The components of curvature are the inverse squares of the several tensor radii of curvature. Formally, all the coincident LNIFs lie on the same “gauge orbit” in Lie group theory. They are all different representations of the same geometrodynamic curvature field seen from different perspectives in locally properly accelerating LNIFs. There are also the LIFs in which, Newton’s gravity force, is eliminated to a good approximation. Indeed, the connection between locally coincident LNIFs and LIFs are the sixteen tetrad components. These sixteen components form four first rank tensor fields, one of which describe the tangent 4-vector to the timelike world line of the COM of the LIF. The LIF tetrads themselves are quasi “Yang-Mills” spin 1 gravity fields that combine with in pairs to form the ten spin 2 symmetric tensor fields in accord with Einstein’s Equivalence Principle (EEP). Newton’s gravity force is represented by the Levi-Civita connection that vanishes at the center of mass (COM) of the LIF. However, the Levi-Civita connection components also describe all the fictitious inertial pseudo-forces found in Newton’s particle mechanics. They are explicitly, in the case of rotation, Coriolis, centripetal and Euler. Under conditions of constraint, for example, a moving bead constrained on a circular wire. Electrical contact real forces from the wire on the moving bead provide the real inward centripetal radial acceleration.
  • Jack SarfattiWe must be clear, what is meant by a “real force” as distinct from a “fictitious inertial pseudoforce.” This distinction depends on first distinguishing the measured object from the detector measuring its motion. Fictitious inertial pseudo forces do not act on the measured object. That is, an accelerometer clamped to the measured object will not show any local proper tensor acceleration (aka “g-force”). In fact, however, an identical accelerometer clamped to the detector will show a local proper tensor acceleration on the detector from some real force acting on it. Therefore, fictitious inertial pseudoforces are optical illusions, purely kinematical artifacts, that appear to act on the measured object, but are really acting on the measuring apparatus. For example, we standing still on surface of the Earth are static LNIFs with radially outward proper tensor accelerations in topsy turvy curved spacetime. Literally, we properly accelerate towards a freely falling cannon ball on a 4D timelike geodesic that is the parabolic orbit in ordinary 3D space. This is hard for many to wrap and warp their minds around. So here is where we come into conflict with Woodward’s idea. He appears to unconsciously shift meanings of “fictitious force” in his argument leading to false conclusions in my opinion. Therefore, I disagree with Woodward’s too vague ambiguous remark: “ Coriolis forces … do not be fooled, they are not the same as gravity …” p. 26 It depends what you mean by “gravity”. If one means the real gravity tensor curvature – then of course that’s correct. However, the proper context is Newton’s famous inverse square force and that is precisely in the same ontic category as the Coriolis, centrifugal and Euler fictitious pseudoforces. Indeed, C. Lanczos showed this explicitly for the Levi-Civita connection. The non-tensor Levi-Civita connection describes all the fictitious forces – the optical illusions seen by observers with proper local tensor accelerations on off-timelike geodesic world lines. The self-referential covariant curl of the non-tensor Levi-Civita connection with itself is the fourth-rank tensor curvature field of real gravity if it’s non-zero. However, the Levi-Civita connection is useful even in special relativity with zero curvature because it describes accelerating observers there as well.
  • Jack SarfattiThe meaning of “constraint” in this specific context is when the measured object and the measuring apparatus are clamped to the same rotating frame, e.g. a rotating disk. In this case, the clamp provides a real electrical contact force on the measured object must provide the inward radial acceleration magnitude square of rotation rate x distance to the axis of rotation. Of course, in accord with Newton’s third law, the measured object exerts and equal and opposite reaction contact force back on the clamp.
  2. Phys. Rev. D » Volume 87 » Issue 4
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    Phys. Rev. D 87, 041301(R) (2013) [6 pages]
    Observing the multiverse with cosmic wakes
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    Matthew Kleban1,*, Thomas S. Levi2,†, and Kris Sigurdson2,‡ 1Department of Physics, CCPP, New York University, New York, New York 10003, USA
    2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada
    Received 28 January 2012; revised 26 May 2012; published 21 February 2013
    Current theories of the origin of the Universe, including string theory, predict the existence of a multiverse with many bubble universes. These bubble universes may collide, and collisions with ours produce cosmic wakes that enter our Hubble volume, appear as unusually symmetric disks in the cosmic microwave background, and disturb large scale structure. There is preliminary evidence consistent with one or more of these disturbances on our sky. However, other sources can produce similar features in the cosmic microwave background, and so additional signals are needed to verify their extra-universal origin. Here we find, for the first time, the detailed three-dimensional shape, temperature, and polarization signals of the cosmic wake of a bubble collision consistent with current observations. The polarization pattern has distinct features that when correlated with the corresponding temperature pattern are a unique and striking signal of a bubble collision. These features represent a verifiable prediction of the multiverse paradigm and might be detected by current or future experiments. A detection of a bubble collision would confirm the existence of the multiverse, provide compelling evidence for the string theory landscape, and sharpen our picture of the Universe and its origins.
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    • Ram Ayana and Miriam Strauss like this.
    • Jack Sarfatti Kuch, you are not communicating intelligibly in many of your sentences.
    • William Kuch My apologies for that it's a habit Ive been trying to break.
    • Theodore Silva I like the Multiverse idea, it leaves open the concept of a kind of "natural selection" for evolving Universes -- even a kind of sexual selection, like the exchange of genes between bacteria. Universes exchanging Constants?
    • Paul Zielinski "No Z you are confused. Tegmark's Levels 1 and 2 are a simple consequence of Einstein's GR + INFLATION." No Jack I am not confused. The mainstream view is that as things stand the existence of a Tegmark Level II multiverse is a *hypothesis*, and I agree with that view.

      The anthropic conundrum is solved in the Tegmark Level II multiverse model by random generation of new universes, in a kind of cosmic Darwinian lottery -- as discussed for example by Penrose. I see nothing in contemporary physics that *requires* the existence of such a multiverse, and the observational support at this point is rather weak. All kinds of things can be derived in theory that may or may not be realized in nature.

      Of course a Tegmark Level III multiverse (a la Everett) is another issue, and is even more conjectural than Level II, since it is based on an alternate interpretation of QM, and is thus not subject to direct empirical confirmation. So I agree with you on that.
    • William Kuch The term "Multiverse" is an oxymoron, resolvable IFF all of these alternate universes are trivial. BAM.
    • Jack Sarfatti Kuch U r babbling like a loon and do not at all understand this subject. You are way out of your depth and do not know that you do not know.
    • Jack Sarfatti Z yes multiverse Level II is a hypothesis that is a "theorem" if you accept the mainstream theory of "chaotic inflation" for which actual evidence is accumulating and more decisive tests are coming. Level 1 is much more certain as it only requires Einstein's GR - this is explained in Tamara Davis's PhD. There are many "causal diamonds" we are inside one of them and they are observer-dependent.
    • William Kuch Indeed I am, with one caveat. I do not babble like a loon. I babble as one.
    • Jack Sarfatti A moment of lucid self-awareness - good for you.
    • Jack Sarfatti OK Z I think we agree Level I very probable - effectively a fact given Tamara Davis's PhD Level II less certain e.g. Penrose's qualms about chaotic inflation, Level III even less certain, I actually reject it. Level IV seems to be of no scientific value. BTW string theory is getting more testable it seems from Lenny Susskind's Stanford online videos.
    • Paul Zielinski OK Jack let's agree that GR + cosmic inflation strongly suggests the possibility of a Level II multiverse being realized in nature. But let's also acknowledge that the inflation model is still itself hypothetical in character. So yes if you are committed to the inflation model then it is reasonable to take the existence of a Level II multiverse seriously.
  3. Like · · Share
    • Jack Sarfatti On Jun 24, 2013, at 5:27 PM, JACK SARFATTI <adastra1@me.com> wrote:

      problem is that it does no work so we cannot apply it to fly an airplane or a space ship there always seems to be a Catch 22 preventing a useful application :

      "perpetual motion"? fir
      st thought "crackpot"

      second thought: "Wilczek's time crystal"

      Rotating Casimir systems: magnetic field-enhanced perpetual motion, possible realization in doped nanotubes, and laws of thermodynamics
      M. N. Chernodub
      CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours,
      Federation Denis Poisson, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France and
      Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
      (Dated: August 24, 2012)

      Recently, we have demonstrated that for a certain class of Casimir-type systems ("devices") the energy of zero-point vacuum fluctuations reaches its global minimum when the device rotates about a certain axis rather than remains static. This rotational vacuum effect may lead to the emergence of permanently rotating objects provided the negative rotational energy of zero-point fluctuations cancels the positive rotational energy of the device itself. In this paper, we show that for massless electrically charged particles the rotational vacuum effect should be drastically (astronomically) enhanced in the presence of a magnetic field. As an illustration, we show that in a background of experimentally available magnetic fields the zero-point energy of massless excitations in rotating torus-shaped doped carbon nanotubes may indeed overwhelm the classical energy of rotation for certain angular frequencies so that the permanently rotating state is energetically favored. The suggested "zero-point driven" devices, which have no internally moving parts, correspond to a perpetuum mobile of a new, fourth kind: They do not produce any work despite the fact that their equilibrium (ground) state corresponds to a permanent rotation even in the presence of an external environment. We show that our proposal is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.
      PACS numbers: 03.70.+k, 42.50.Lc, 42.50.Pq

      Sent from my iPhone

      On Jun 24, 2013, at 2:05 PM, art wagner wrote:

    • Dean Radin rebuts the failure to replicate Bem's "Feeling the Future" done on line without proper controls Radin says - bogus rebuttal
    • Jack Sarfatti From: Dean Radin
      Subject: Re: Possible nuclear detonation detected by anomalous mental phenomena
      Date: June 24, 2013 5:02:48 PM PDT
      ...See More
    • Jack Sarfatti From: JACK SARFATTI <adastra1@me.com>
      Subject: Re: [ExoticPhysics] Reality of Possibility
      Date: June 25, 2013 11:08:05 AM PDT
      To: Exotic Physics <exoticphysics@mail.softcafe.net>
      Reply-To: Jack Sarfatti's Workshop in Advanced Physics <exoticphysics@mai
      ...See More
      This paper is dedicated to three great thinkers who have insisted that the world is not quite the straightforward affair that our successes in describing it mathematically may have seemed to suggest: Niels Bohr, whose analyses of the problem of explaining life play a central role in the following di...
    • Jack Sarfatti On Jun 25, 2013, at 1:27 PM, JACK SARFATTI <adastra1@me.com> wrote:

      On Jun 24, 2013, at 7:49 PM, Ruth Kastner <rekastner@hotmail.com> wrote:

      See Chapter 7 of my book. One can see the usual subject/object dichotomy as the absorption/emission dichotomy in TI, and can think of 'qualia' as the subjective aspects of any absorption event.

      This is strange. You seem to say that in the simplest Feynman diagram ---< --- = photon < = scattered electron

      there is a conscious experience?

      I think you go too far. First of all quantum electrodynamics is built upon linear unitary Born probability rule orthodox quantum theory with signal locality "passion at a distance" (A. Shimony), no perfect cloning of an unknown quantum state etc. built in. David Deutsch has correctly argued that consciousness is not possible in orthodox quantum theory.

      Basically your distinction is equivalent to Bohm's simply a change of nouns in my opinion.

      Your "possibility" = Bohm's "quantum potential" Q = Wheeler's BIT = Stapp's "thought like" field = David Chalmers "intrinsic mental field"

      Your "actuality" = Bohm's not so "hidden variables" i.e. material particles/classical EM-gravity field configurations that are piloted by Q i.e. "beables."

      Valentini's recent claim that Q is unstable leading to deviations from Born probability rule where it shouldn't of course needs to be addressed. Basil Hiley did so.

      As you will see in Lecture 8 of Michael Towler's http://www.tcm.phy.cam.ac.uk/~mdt26/pilot_waves.html

      The no-signal theorems of Adrian Kent et-al only apply in the approximate limit where the generalized action-reaction principle of Einstein's relativity is violated.

      In other words, no stand-alone entanglement signaling (without a classical signal key to decrypt the coded message) depends upon lack of a direct back-reaction of Q on the beables it pilots. This is equivalent to Antony Valentini's "sub-quantal thermal equilibrium" of the beables.
      Indeed, orthodox quantum theory is not background independent to make an analogy of Q with space-time geometry. Q is not itself a dynamical field (in configuration space) it has no sources! This violates Einstein's relativity principle in a very deep sense of no absolute fields in physics. Any field that acts on another field must have back-reaction. Now of course we have test particles in the gravity & EM fields that are not sources. But we all understand that is an approximation. Orthodox quantum theory depends upon beables being test particles, i.e. not sources of the Q BIT field in configuration space. Therefore, orthodox quantum theory is an approximation of a more general theory, e.g. something like Valentini's, and is not complete. The most obvious breakdown of orthodox quantum theory is living matter.

      Orthodox Quantum Theory is simply John Archibald Wheeler's


      It is incomplete because it does NOT have direct back-reaction

      BIT FROM IT.
    • Jack Sarfatti Consciousness is, in my view, an emergent property of very complex highly entangled many-particle pumped open-systems which are Prigogine's "dissipative structures" corresponding to Tony Valentini's "sub-quantal non-equilibrium". The big defect in Valentini's theory is that he does not properly address pumping of the system. He only really includes closed systems relaxing to thermal equilibrium.

      Consciousness is imprinting of information directly from the classical IT material degrees of freedom, e.g. CLASSICAL Fuv = Au,v - Av,u on their (super) pilot field Q, which is intrinsically mental.



      in a creative self-organizing loop of a nonlinear non-unitary post-quantum theory.

      We need the "More is different" (P.W. Anderson) Higgs-Goldstone spontaneous breakdown of ground state symmetry to get the Glauber coherent states that obey a nonlinear nonunitary Landau-Ginzburg equation in ordinary space - not configuration space - that replaces the linear unitary Schrodinger-Dirac equations. This is why 't Hooft's S-Matrix for black hole horizons may fail. This is why Tegmark's Level 3 may fail as well.


      In particular, as I note in the book, the 'Now' (with its attendant qualia) is a primal, irreduceably local phenomenon, defined relative to an absorption resulting in an actualized transaction. Biological organisms are very sophisticated absorption systems. Note that my model does not presume that the physical entities are mind-free Cartesian matter, so allows for a subjective component within the interacting systems, although the model is not observer-dependent.


      From: adastra1@me.com
      Subject: Re: Reality of Possibility
      Date: Mon, 24 Jun 2013 19:26:50 -0700

      It's much more than that. I have a clear picture of qualia. What's yours?

      Sent from my iPhone

      On Jun 24, 2013, at 7:18 PM, Ruth Kastner <rekastner@hotmail.com> wrote:

      You're depending on the Bohmian model here. I'm working with a different model, so these arguments don't apply.

      Subject: Re: Reality of Possibility
      Date: Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:34:05 -0700
      To: rekastner@hotmail.com

      I don't think u can have consciousness qualia without signal nonlocality violating quantum theory.

      Sure free will is simply the piloting of matter by Bohm's Q. However, you cannot have qualia imprinted on Q from the matter Q pilots. Quantum theory violates the generalized action-reaction principle.

      Sent from my iPhone

      On Jun 24, 2013, at 6:24 PM, Ruth Kastner wrote:


      Thanks for the feedback.
      My interpretation of the quantum realm as physical possibility certainly leaves room for the theory to apply to consciousness and biological systems. For example, I don't go into this in detail in my book, but 'offer waves' (i.e. the entities described by quantum states) are excitations of the relevant fields. The creation of these entities (involving 'creation operators' in QFT) is inherently unpredictable. This leaves room for things like volition and creativity within the standard theory.
      So I disagree that one needs a Valentini-type model i.e., going beyond standard QM, for these things.

      I welcome thoughts on my guest post on George Musser's Sci Am blog (http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/critical-opalescence/2013/06/21/can-we-resolve-quantum-paradoxes-by-stepping-out-of-space-and-time-guest-post/)


      From: adastra1@me.com
      Date: Mon, 24 Jun 2013 18:07:52 -0700
      Subject: Reality of Possibility

      To: rek

      Ruth, I disagree with your basic thesis that orthodox quantum theory is complete.
      This would deny Antony Valentini's sub-quantal non-equilibrium with signal nonlocality for example.
      My basic thesis is that orthodox quantum theory is incomplete. That it cannot explain biology and consciousness.
      Both the latter depend upon signal nonlocality in strong violation of orthodox quantum theory.

      1) linear Hermitian operators for all observables

      2) orthogonal eigenfunctions for all observables

      3) unitary time evolution

      4) linear superposition of quantum states

      5) Born probability interpretation

      6) consciousness

      are incompatible

      I also accept retro-causation in mind/brain data as a working hypothesis, i.e. Libet, Radin, Bierman, Bem.
      Next month will be the 100th anniversary of Bohr's model of the atom, one of the foundations of the theory of quantum mechanics. And look where ...

Everyone, except perhaps Jim, agrees that a retarded EM OFFER wave from Alice falling on a hovering detector Bob very close to any future horizon of area-entropy A either black hole or de Sitter or Rindler will blue shift. According to Jim the return advanced CONFIRMATION wave to Alice will blue shift even more! Hence, a HANDSHAKE is impossible due to the enormous frequency mismatch in Jim's way of thinking.


fret(Alice) ---> fret(Bob) ~  (A^1/4/Lp^1/2)fret(Alice) 
According to Jim,
fadv(Alice) = (A^1/4/Lp^1/2)fret(Bob) = (A^1/2/Lp)fret(Alice) 
fadv(Alice) >> fret(Alice) 
violates TI

On Jun 6, 2013, at 12:52 PM, JackSarfatti <JackSarfatti@comcast.net> wrote:

Jim's scheme violates TI because Jim if he worked out his idea in detail would have advanced offer wave at a higher frequency than the retarded confirmation wave at the PAST absorber in the retrocausal case.

Sent from my iPhone

On Jun 6, 2013, at 12:35 PM, Ruth Kastner  wrote:

"The only reason I replied was because of your claim that Jim's model 'violates Cramer's TI' -- to point out that your debate with Jim has no bearing on TI.  Nor does my model obscure any important conceptual insights.

Best wishes"



Jim also confuses the Hubble sphere where expansion speed is that of light with the cosmic horizons.

if you use static coordinates

gtt = 1 - r^2/A

1 + z = [gtt(receiver)/gtt(source)]^1/2

use  r ~ A^1/2 - Lp  in gtt(source)  and r = 0 for gtt(receiver)

for advanced offer wave in the Cramer transaction

result is (first order Taylor series)

1 + z ~ (1/(Lp/A^1/2)^1/2) = (A^1/2/Lp)^1/2

---> infinity as Lp ---> 0

My argument in co-moving Friedmann coordinates below is consistent with the in static coordinates above.

As above
So below ;-)

Indeed Tamara Davis in her PhD says what I say about the change of distance to our past and future horizons It's obvious from her diagram (Fig 1.1)

We recede from our past particle horizon, we approach our future dark energy de Sitter horizon.

1) In a Cramer transaction a retarded offer wave to us from near our past horizon is redshifted.

An advanced confirmation wave from us to near our past particle horizon is blue shifted.

Our relative space is effectively expanding forward in time in this transaction with our past horizon.

2) In a Cramer transaction an advanced offer wave to use from our future horizon is redshifted.

A retarded confirmation wave from us to it is blue shifted.

Our relative space is effectively contracting forward in time in this transaction with our future horizon.

Therefore, it is effectively expanding backwards in time for a back from the future advanced wave to us.

Advanced Wheeler-Feynman Hawking black body radiation of peak energy hc/Lp is then redshifted down to hc/(LpA^1/2)^1/2 at our detectors.

From Stefan-Boltzmann T^4 law this gives energy density hc/Lp^2A, which happens to agree with the actual dark energy density accelerating out causal diamond observable patch of the multiverse.

A = area of our future horizon at intersection with our future light cone.