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From string theory's financial derivatives to ....? ;-)
They are known as "quants" because they do quantitative finance. Seduced by a vision of mathematical elegance underlying some of the messiest of human activities, they apply skills they once hoped to use to untangle string theory or the nervous system to making money.

Derman, Overbye noted, "fell in love with a corner of finance that dealt with stock options."


"Options theory is kind of deep in some way. It was very elegant; it had the quality of physics" Derman told him.
— JB
http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/derman10.1/derman10.1_index.html
"'There is a vast market for ever-faster fibre-optic cables to try to physically "get there faster"'but Dr Wissner-Gross said that the purely technological approach to gaining an advantage was reaching a limit.

Trades now travel at nearly 90% of the ultimate speed limit set by physics, the speed of light in the cables.


Competitive advantage

His first solution, published in 2010, considered the various latencies in global fibre-optic links and mapped out where the optimal points for financial transactions to originate - midway between two major financial hubs to maximise the chance of "buying low" in one place and 'selling high' in another."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12827752?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter
Bye, bye, orthodox quantum theory. Where there is a will there is a way. ;-)
Subquantum Information and Computation
Antony Valentini
(Submitted on 11 Mar 2002 (v1), last revised 12 Apr 2002 (this version, v2))
It is argued that immense physical resources - for nonlocal communication, espionage, and exponentially-fast computation - are hidden from us by quantum noise, and that this noise is not fundamental but merely a property of an equilibrium state in which the universe happens to be at the present time. It is suggested that 'non-quantum' or nonequilibrium matter might exist today in the form of relic particles from the early universe. We describe how such matter could be detected and put to practical use. Nonequilibrium matter could be used to send instantaneous signals, to violate the uncertainty principle, to distinguish non-orthogonal quantum states without disturbing them, to eavesdrop on quantum key distribution, and to outpace quantum computation (solving NP-complete problems in polynomial time).
http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0203049