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In one aspect, the invention relates to a method for generating a plasmon-polariton or phonon-polariton resonance effect including: providing a structure capable of such resonance; providing a gain medium; and placing the structure in closejuxtaposition to the gain medium. In one embodiment the structure is a nanoparticle. In another embodiment the structure is a nanostructure. In another embodiment the structure has a dimension D and the structure is placed within a distance less thanor equal to D to the gain medium. In yet another embodiment the structure is placed within the gain medium or partially within the gain medium.

In yet another aspect the invention relates to a material for enhanced plasmon-polariton and phonon-polariton resonance. The material includes a gain medium; and a structure capable of plasmon-polariton or photon-polariton resonance positionedin close juxtaposition to the gain medium. In another embodiment the structure has a plasmon absorption curve, the gain medium has a gain curve and the peak of the plasmon absorption curve lies within the gain curve.

In still yet another embodiment the invention relates to a device for enhanced plasmon resonance. The device includes a gain medium; a structure capable of plasmon-polariton and phonon-polariton resonance positioned in close juxtaposition to thegain medium; and a device for stimulating such resonance in the structure.

Another embodiment of the invention includes a metallic nano-particle surrounded by an amplifying medium results in a boundary condition that creates a singularity in the particle's dynamic polarizability at the localized surface plasmonresonance and at a critical value of the gain. When this boundary condition is time dependent due to excitation by a sub-picosecond laser pulse, coupling to the electromagnetic vacuum results in photon emission in an analogue of the Unruh Effect. Estimates of the vacuum emission from 2-D nanostructures embedded in high gain laser dyes predict energies nearly two orders of magnitude larger than the spontaneous emission background. The vacuum radiation is predicted to have a unique dependence onthe excitation, further distinguishing it from other radiative processes.

In yet another embodiment, a singularity in the optical polarizability of nanoscale metallic structures embedded in amplifying media is shown to create a dynamic boundary condition which strongly couples to the electromagnetic vacuum. Thecoupling of zero point vacuum energy to this transient and divergent response is predicted to emit radiation analogous to the Unruh effect which exceeds the spontaneous emission signal by nearly two orders of magnitude. An experimental system isdescribed which can be used to observe this new radiation using available femtosecond lasers, gain media and nanofabricated structures is described. The basic effect described her can be utilized with other ordered plasmon supporting structures and withtransient host boundary condition response that involves absorption or pure index of refraction changes, although it is expected that such media would have a weaker emission due to the lack of a singularity as described for the case of gain.

Another embodiment includes a plasmon supporting structure in a surrounding medium which changes its optical properties rapidly in time as a generator of radiation is disclosed herein. The surrounding medium can change its absorption/gainproperties or simply its index of refraction or both. This can be accomplished through mechanical, electrical, thermal or optical means. The composite material created from a plurality of such plasmons supporting structures in a host is also disclosed.


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Category: Science