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Using low-frequency laser pulses, a team of researchers has carried out the first measurements that reveal the detailed characteristics of a unique kind of magnetism found in a mineral called herbertsmithite.

In this material, the magnetic elements constantly fluctuate, leading to an exotic state of fluid magnetism called a "quantum spin liquid." This is in contrast to conventional magnetism, found in materials called ferromagnets -- where all of the magnetic forces align in the same direction, reinforcing each other -- or antiferromagnets, where adjacent magnetic elements align in opposite directions, leading to complete cancellation of the material's overall magnetic field.

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