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In December, my monthly blog was an article titled Quantum, Artificial Intelligence, Dilbert and Duct Tape. Quantum interests me. "Dilbert" I read daily, and duct tape saved the protagonist in Andy Weir’s novel "The Martian." It’s not that I understand basic principles of quantum mechanics, but there is so much that quantum mechanics and its associated physics offer that crosses so many technological fields and means for the future of space exploration.

Quantum mechanics can resolve the issue of time lag in command, control and communications (C3) with a side benefit—not addressed in this blog—of freeing up additional radio frequency (RF) spectrum within the growing world of wireless. Here, we'll talk instead about “entanglement.”

Entanglement is what Albert Einstein referred to as “spooky action at a distance.” Entangled quantum particles also are known to create a “teleportation” effect. Entangled quantum particles remain instant twin replicates of each other, regardless of the distance between them. When an action on one is changed, it results in an instantaneous similar action on the other. Such is the entanglement between the two particles that they remain a constant twin, regardless of distance.

Research explores how the quantum mechanics of entanglement can be a source for instantaneous communications. Understanding the principle of entanglement is important. It occurs when a pair of quantum particles physically interacts with each other, either serendipitously or intentionally, or when a single quantum particle such as photon is split. Scientists have used a laser beam to split single photons. Once split, the now two new photons exhibit the same properties. And, somehow they are linked—entangled—with each other so that whatever effect occurs on one also occurs on the other, regardless of how how far apart they are from each other.

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