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Lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology has advanced dramatically during the last two decades. LIBs have proven their exceptional performance in terms of operating voltage, life cycle, energy density, and self-discharge rate, as well as low volume. Despite LIBs' enticing applicability, constraints such as poor performance at low temperatures, short lifetimes, and, most importantly, the rapid depletion of lithium ore supplies may be a setback for the technology. Many studies have been performed on alternate elements for ion battery technology based on this concept.

Because of their non-toxicity, low cost, and almost endless sodium mineral supply, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are predicted to replace LIBs. However, SIBs have a poor energy density and storage capacity, as well as a slow discharging and charging rate. Since the discovery of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, which produce brilliantly functioning electrodes, the development of ion batteries has progressed in recent decades.

Due to its high surface area and promising electrical characteristics, graphene has been widely researched as an anodic material. One-dimensional nanotubes and zero-dimensional fullerenes, in particular, have been used as anodic materials in LIBs and have shown improved electrochemical performance.

When compared to 3D graphite, however, these carbon-based materials only have a short-term performance advantage. It is well known that the morphologies and structures of nanomaterials have a significant impact on their performance. As a result, graphene nanosheets are predicted to boost electrochemical activity. Despite these efforts, there are few publications on boron intercalation within the layers of high-quality graphene nanosheets for enhanced anodic boron-ion batteries (BIBs).

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