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Computing power of quantum machines is currently still very low. Increasing it is still proving to be a major challenge. Physicists now present a new architecture for a universal quantum computer that overcomes such limitations and could be the basis of the next generation of quantum computers soon.

Quantum bits (qubits) in a quantum computer serve as a computing unit and memory at the same time. Because quantum information cannot be copied, it cannot be stored in a memory as in a classical computer. Due to this limitation, all qubits in a quantum computer must be able to interact with each other. This is currently still a major challenge for building powerful quantum computers. In 2015, theoretical physicist Wolfgang Lechner, together with Philipp Hauke and Peter Zoller, addressed this difficulty and proposed a new architecture for a quantum computer, now named LHZ architecture after the authors.

"This architecture was originally designed for optimization problems," recalls Wolfgang Lechner of the Department of Theoretical Physics at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. "In the process, we reduced the architecture to a minimum in order to solve these optimization problems as efficiently as possible." The physical qubits in this architecture do not represent individual bits but encode the relative coordination between the bits. "This means that not all qubits have to interact with each other anymore," explains Wolfgang Lechner. With his team, he has now shown that this parity concept is also suitable for a universal quantum computer.

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