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# Cold Fusion 11-6-11 Violation of CLASSICAL 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?

Ask Gerry Pelligrini and Dan Sheehan to look into this. They are questioning the classical Second Law of Thermodynamics in this area. I know that's taboo like signal nonlocality (e.g. see the papers by Adrian Kent at Cavendish Lab, Cambridge).

Pelligrini has Navy Lab data he claims violates the Maxwell Relations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell_relations

in terms of Cartan forms, this corresponds to an exact form.

i.e. A = df

dA = d^2f = 0

on the other hand we can have closed dA = 0 non-exact forms A =/= df (non vanishing curl - transverse degrees of freedom) for non-trivial topology (corresponding to irreversibility).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_form

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Élie_Cartan

This is related to gauge invariance in field theory A gauge transformation defines an equivalence class (gauge orbit)

A ---> A' = A + df

A is a 1-form

f = 0-form

A gauge orbit equivalence class is the set of all f (same boundary conditions) - The set of distinct equivalence classes (orbits) {A'} is formally the quotient set of  closed 1-forms/exact 1-forms

The equivalence classes are non-overlapping.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalence_class

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotient_space

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quotient_group

On Nov 6, 2011, at 11:11 AM, Kim Burrafato wrote:

Combined with the new thermoelectric generator technology coming on line, smaller scale units might be able to heat and power a home, and that would be pretty significant, IMO, particularly in primitive third world regions. Scaling up to nuclear and fossil fuel commercial levels of power generation might not ever be feasible, IF the reaction efficiency isn't greatly improved. Just more reason why it's so important that the theory of what's actually going on be much better understood than it currently is.  If the efficiency of the LEN reaction increased enough, we could see these things powering transportation vehicles, which would really be cool!

On Nov 5, 2011, at 16:26, Adam wrote:

To effectively replace coal-fired systems the e-Cat heating elements need to operate at 1600 K or so. I don't see that kind of performance yet - and I would like to.

On 04/11/2011, at 8:32 PM, Brian Josephson wrote:

--On 4 November 2011 21:19:26 +1000 Adam wrote:

Can't run a steam turbine,

In many of the tests it evaporated the water.  I assume the buyer can tack a turbine on the end if he wants to.  Also as I recall the reactor is at a considerably higher temperature.  Costs are said to compare very favourably with other power sources, I'm afraid I don't have the details to hand but you should be able to find them at pesn.com.  It is particularly useful in applications where heat or hot water is the aim of course.

Brian

On Nov 6, 2011, at 3:43 AM, Brian Josephson wrote:

--On 6 November 2011 14:52:13 +1000 Adam Crowl wrote:

Old mechanical engineering know-how. Typical temp of a furnace.

My old physics know-how tells me something different -- see my previous comment.

On Nov 6, 2011, at 10:47 AM, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. wrote:

Rossi made the first practical reactor.  It's like the first airplane.  Once people start exploring this, there will be many more advances.  That's the purpose of R&D.  The people that do the R&D will advance over those who don't.
In a message dated 11/6/2011 1:42:21 P.M. Eastern Standard Time, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. writes:
--On 6 November 2011 13:38:19 -0500 This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. wrote:

> Just to name one.  Suppose other countries do a crash program to
> develop, improve, and implement?  Wouldn't they then be at a distinct
> advantage.  Maybe that possibility will wake them up?

Rossi's in complete control here so that won't work.

B.

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