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INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN PHYSICS
Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 (2005) 897–964 doi:10.1088/0034-4885/68/4/R04
The structure of the world from pure numbers  ref 18
F J Tipler

"I shall show that observing the CMBR through a filter of 290 Å of graphite would yield a 39% greater flux if the CMBR were a SU(2)L gauge field than if the CMBR is an electromagnetic field."

"One might object that there is no consistent quantum gravity theory. On the contrary,
there is a qualitatively unique quantum gravity theory based on the continuum, on the metric of general relativity. In fact, this theory has been in effect independently discovered by Feynman, DeWitt and Weinberg among others, but because this theory has a ‘philosophical problem’, a problem that arises from taking the integers as fundamental rather than the continuum, these great physicists did not realize that they had solved the problem of quantizing gravity. They also did not realize that the correct quantum gravity theory is consistent only if a certain set of boundary conditions are imposed, which I shall describe. Quantum gravity stabilizes the SM, but this stabilization forces the constants of the SM to depend on cosmic time. DeWitt (1964), Salam and Strathdee (1978) and Isham et al (1971) long ago suggested that gravity might eliminate the infinities of quantum field theory. I shall argue that they were correct.


Starting from the indicated boundary conditions, I shall calculate what the initial state of
the universe must be. It is, as Kelvin and Maxwell conjectured at the end of the nineteenth
century, a state of zero entropy. This unique quantum state is consistent with the SM only
if the only field present is the SU(2)L field of the SM. I shall compute the solution to the
Yang–Mills–Einstein equations for this unique state, and show that it naturally yields, via
electroweak tunnelling, more matter than antimatter, and also the correct baryon to photon
ratio η. The baryons thus generated are the source of the perturbations from which all the structure of the universe is generated, and I shall show that observed scale-free Harrison–
Zel’dovich spectrum arises naturally from the generated baryons. The flatness, horizon
and isotropy problems are automatically resolved given the required unique initial state. In
particular, the observed flatness of the universe is a result of the familiar quantum mechanical wave packet spreading.


There remain the dark matter and the dark energy problems. I point out that these problems
have a solution if the initial SU(2)L gauge field managed to avoid thermalization in the early
universe. If it did, then necessarily this field is the cosmic microwave background radiation
(CMBR), and the dark matter would be a manifestation of an interchange of energy between
the SM Higgs field and the CMBR. The dark energy would then be the manifestation of the
residual positive cosmological constant that must exist if the SM is to be consistent with general relativity."