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Published: 01 October 2013
22 minutes ago
Making Star Trek Real
I adopt as a working hypothesis that the flying saucers are real and that they get here through stargates that are shortcut tunnels in Einstein’s spacetime continuum. The task is then to see what modern physics has to say about such a scenario even if it’s not true. Whether or not it’s true is beside the point and I will not discuss the actual UFO evidence, good, bad and bogus in this book. I will also write about quantum theory and its relation to computing, consciousness, cosmology, the hologram universe and ending in a scenario for Stephen Hawking’s “Mind of God.” That Hawking thinks God is not necessary is again is beside the point. A good layman’s background reference here is Enrico Rodrigo’s “The Physics of Stargates: Parallel Universes, Time Travel and the Enigma of Wormhole Physics.” If you have the patience, Leonard Susskind’s Stanford University lectures in physics online videos are also worth the effort for the serious student
22 minutes ago
Chapter 1 Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in a Nutshell
Here I follow “Gravitation and Inertia” by Ignazio Ciufolini and John Archibald Wheeler, which is a more up to date sequel to the Misner, Thorne, Wheeler classic book “Gravitation.”
“Gravity is not a foreign and physical force transmitted through space and time. It is a manifestation of the curvature of spacetime.” Albert Einstein
“First, there was the idea of Riemann that space, telling mass how to move, must itself – by the principle of action and reaction – be affected by mass. It cannot be an ideal Euclidean perfection, standing in high mightiness above the battles of matter and energy. Space geometry must be a participant in the world of physics.” John Archibald Wheeler (aka JAW)
“Second, there was the contention of Ernst Mach that the ‘acceleration relative to absolute space’ of Newton is only properly understood when it is viewed as acceleration relative to the sole significant mass there really is.” JAW
The above statement is now obsolete since ordinary matter in the form of baryons, electrons, photons etc. is now known to be not more that approximately 5% of all the gravitating stuff that we can see in the past light cones of our telescopes. About 70% is large-scale anti-gravitating dark energy accelerating the expansion speed of 3D space. Random quantum vacuum zero point virtual photons and other spin 1 and spin 2 quanta in quantum field theory have negative pressure three times greater than their positive energy density and may be dark energy. The remaining approximately 25% is clumped shorter-scale gravitating dark matter that holds galaxies together. Random quantum vacuum zero point virtual electron-positron and other spin ½ quanta have positive pressure three times greater than their negative energy density causing attractive gravity like dark matter. If dark matter is this quantum vacuum effect dictated by local Lorentz covariance and Einstein’s Equivalence Principle (aka EEP), then none of the attempts to measure real on-mass-shell particles whizzing through space to explain dark matter will succeed. There are, however, “f(R)” MOND variations of Einstein’s general relativity that attempt to explain both dark matter and dark energy.
21 minutes ago
“According to this ‘Mach Principle,’ inertia here arises from mass there.” JAW
This is summarized in Einstein’s 1915 local tensor field equation relating the source stress-energy current densities of matter fields to the curvature of spacetime locally coincident with matter currents. However, when we solve those local field equations we have to impose global boundary/initial conditions and use the method of Green’s function propagators to see how matter currents here change spacetime curvature there. The “inertia” in Wheeler’s statement above refers to the pattern of force-free time like geodesic paths of test particles whose mass is small enough to neglect their distortion of the local curvature gravity field. The word “inertia” in the context of Mach’s principle above does not refer at all to the actual rest masses of the test particles. Indeed, the test particle rest masses cancel out of the timelike geodesic equations of motion that correspond to Newton’s first law of motion. Galileo first understood this though he did not have the modern mathematical concepts I am using here.
“Third was that great insight of Einstein that … ‘free fall is free float’: the equivalence principle, one of the best tested principles of physics, from the inclined tables of Galilei and the pendulum experiments of Galilei, Huygens, and Newton to the highly accurate torsion balance measurements of the twentieth century, and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment … With these three clues vibrating in his head, the magic of mind opened to Einstein what remains one of mankind’s most precious insights: gravity is manifestation of spacetime curvature.”
What should we mean by the word “inertia” and what is its relation to gravity? Wheeler means: “The local equivalence of ‘gravitation’ and ‘inertia,’ or the local cancellation of the gravitational field by local inertial frames … A gravitational field is affected by mass-energy distributions and currents, as are the local inertial frames. Gravitational field and local inertial frames are both characterized by the spacetime metric, which is determined by the mass-energy distributions and currents.”
20 minutes ago
The same term “gravitational field” is used in several different meanings depending on context. When Wheeler talks about the “cancellation of the gravitational field by local inertial frames” he means Newton’s universally attracting radial 1/r2 field from a spherically symmetric source mass. In the tensor calculus language of Einstein’s 1916 general theory of relativity of gravitation, Newton’s gravity field is a piece of the Levi-Civita connection terms in the directional covariant derivative of the linear four-momentum of a test particle with respect to the proper clock time along its path or world line in four-dimensional spacetime. The second meaning of “gravitational field” is the tensor curvature, which is the rotational covariant partial derivative “curl” of the Levi-Civita connection with respect to itself. Einstein’s theory is a local classical field theory whose measurable properties or “observables” must be tensors and spinors.
The local geometrodynamic field moves massive test particles in force-free inertial motion on timelike geodesics, but do not back-react on the geometrodynamic field. We distinguish test particles from source masses, which generate the geometrodynamic field in a similar way to how electric charges generate the electromagnetic field.
19 minutes ago
Contrary to popular misconceptions, although the local laws of classical physics have the same “tensor” and/or “spinor” form for all motions of detectors measuring all the observable possessed by the “test particles”, there are privileged dynamical motions of the test particles in Einstein’s two theories of relativity special 1905 and general 1916. This was in Einstein’s words “My happiest thought.” These privileged motions are called “geodesic” motions or “world lines.” Test particles are distinguished from “source particles.” It is an approximation that test particles do not significantly modify the fields acting on them. They are, strictly speaking, a useful contradiction of the metaphysical principle of no action of Alice on Bob without a direct “back-reaction” of Bob on Alice. Massless point test particles in what physicists call the “classical limit” move on “null” or “lightlike” geodesics. Test particles with mass m move on timelike geodesics that are inside the “light cone” formed by all the light rays that might be emitted from that test particle if it were electrically charged and if it were really accelerating. The latter is a “counter-factual” statement. Look that up on Google. The key point is that Alice is weightless when traveling on a timelike geodesic inside her two local light cones past and future. There are no real forces F acting on Alice. On the contrary, Bob who is measuring Alice with a detector (aka “measuring apparatus”) need not be on another timelike geodesic. He can be off-geodesic because real forces can be acting on him causing him to feel weight. The real forces acting on Bob appear as “fictitious” “inertial pseudo-forces” acting on Alice from Bob’s frame of reference. The only real forces in nature that we know about in 2013 are the electro-magnetic, the weak and the strong. Gravity is not a real force in Einstein’s theory. Gravity is one of the fictitious forces described above. Real forces on test particles, unlike all fictitious forces on them, are not universal. Fictitious inertial pseudo-forces that appear to, but are not really acting on the observed test particles all depend on the mass m of the test particle.
18 minutes ago
The operational litmus test to distinguish a real force from a fictitious inertial pseudo-force is what an accelerometer rigidly clamped to the observed test particle measures. I repeat, because many engineers and even some physicists get muddled on what should be an elementary physics idea: Einstein’s “happiest thought” that led to his general theory of relativity in the first place, was his epiphany that an accelerometer clamped to a freely falling object on a timelike geodesic path (i.e., world line) would not register any g-force (i.e., any weight). The apparent kinematical acceleration of a freely falling test particle seen in the gravitational field of the surface of Earth is because the surface of rigid Earth at every point on it has radially outward proper tensor acceleration whilst the test particle itself has zero proper tensor acceleration. The accelerometer on the test particle registers zero. The accelerometer at a point on the surface of Earth registers the “weight” an object of rest mass m clamped to it. That every point on a rigid sphere is accelerating radially outward is hard for common sense engineers and laymen to comprehend. It seems crazy to common sense, but that is precisely the counter-intuitive Alice in Wonderland reality of Einstein’s curved spacetime that is battle-tested by very accurate experiments. Consequently, if Alice and Eve are each on separate timelike geodesics very close to each other and if Bob who is not on a timelike geodesic of his own due to real forces acting on him, then Alice and Eve will have the same kinematical acceleration relative to Bob and they will both feel weightless though Bob feels weight – also called “g-force.” This causes a lot of confusion, especially to aerospace missile engineers and high-energy particle physicists, because Newton did consider gravity to be a real force, but Einstein did not. Gravity is not a force. Gravity is the curvature tensor of four-dimensional space-time. What Newton thought of as a real gravity force, is demoted to a fictitious inertial pseudo-force in Einstein’s theory. In the language of the late John Archibald Wheeler, gravity is a “force without Force”. The best local frame invariant way to think about gravity in an objective local frame-independent way is the pattern of both light like and timelike geodesics whose source is the “stress-energy density tensor field” Tuv of matter. By matter we mean spin 1/2 leptons, quarks, and the spin 1 electromagnetic-weak-strong gauge bosons as well as the spin 0 Higgs vacuum superconductor field that formed only when our observable piece of the multiverse called the “causal diamond” popped out of the false vacuum about 13.7 billion years ago.
18 minutes ago
“For years it was thought that the Schwarzschild spacetime did in fact exhibit some sort of radial singularity at r = 2GM/c2. Eventually physicists came to realize that it was not Schwarzschild spacetime th
Flying saucer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A flying saucer (also referred to as a flying disc) is a type of described flyin
g craft with a disc or saucer-shaped body, commonly used generically to refer to any anomalous flying object. In 1947 the term was coined but was later officially supplanted by the United States Air Force in 1952 with th...
16 minutes ago
A firewall is a hypothetical phenomenon where an observer that falls into an old black hole encounters high-energy quanta at (or near) the event horizon. The "firewall" phenomenon was proposed in 2012 by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully  as a
possible solution to an apparent inconsistency in black hole complementarity. The proposal is often referred to as the "AMPS" firewall, an acronym for the names of the authors of the 2012 paper. However, the occurrence of this phenomenon was proposed eleven years earlier by Friedwardt Winterberg, and is very different from Hawking radiation.
The firewall hypothesis, like black hole complementarity, is quantum gravitational. It arises (in part) from the conjecture that once an old black hole has emitted a sufficiently large amount of Hawking radiation, the mixed quantum state of the black hole is highly entangled with the state of the Hawking radiation thus far emitted. Firewalls are a dramatic change from the usual assumption that quantum gravity is unimportant except in regions of spacetime where the radius of spacetime curvature is on the order of the Planck length; large black holes have low curvature near the event horizon.
However, according to Winterberg, a correct theory of quantum gravity cannot ignore the zero point vacuum energy. Because it must be cut off at the Planck energy, Lorentz invariance is violated at high energies, creating a preferred reference system in which the zero-point energy is at rest. In approaching and crossing the event horizon at the velocity of light in the preferred reference system, an elliptic differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over in a hyperbolic differential equation where there is no such equilibrium, with all matter disintegrating into gamma rays without loss of information or violation of unitarity, as it has been observed in cosmic gamma ray bursters.
The firewall idea seems to be related to the "energetic curtain" around a black hole, proposed by Braunstein, but it depends on the unproven conjecture that a black hole entropy is entirely entropy of entanglement
Firewall (physics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A firewall is a hypothetical phenomenon where an observer that falls into an old
black hole encounters high-energy quanta at (or near) the event horizon. The "firewall" phenomenon was proposed in 2012 by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully as a possible solution to an apparent inconsistency i...
16 minutes ago
“What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? … However, if we discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable by everyone, not just by a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, sc
ientists and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason -- for then we should know the mind of God.” (P.193), A Brief History of Time.
Rodrigo shows that the classical energy conditions and chronology protection arguments against time travel to the past as well as the quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy balanced by positive energy are not likely to be fatal barriers against stargate technology.
Wikipedia has now become quite reliable for physics/math articles after a rocky start of several years especially on biographies of living movers and shakers. Rather than repeat standard content on technical jargon that is prerequisite to understanding this book I give URLs to Wikipedia and, at times, other explanations.
The same idea appears in quantum theory in David Bohm’s interpretation. Orthodox quantum theory violates Wheeler’s philosophical principle of action and reaction. The quantum information field Q acts on the classical particles and fields without any direct reaction of the latter on the former. Then, and only then, is it impossible to use entanglement as a stand alone communication channel not requiring a classical signal key to decrypt the message at only one end of the entangled whole. In other words, “background independence” in Einstein’s 1916 general relativity is equivalent to entanglement signal nonlocality violating orthodox quantum theory. The non-dynamical spacetime background of Einstein’s 1905 special relativity is equivalent to the “no signaling” circular arguments of Abner Shimony’s “passion at a distance.”
With seven years of data, the WMAP cosmology satellite has refined the age of th
e universe and other key cosmic parameters. The results strengthen the "standard model" of inflationary cosmology.
12 minutes ago
Newton’s particle mechanics and Einstein’s 1905 special theory of rel
Riemann curvature tensor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor
, or Riemann–Christoffel tensor after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel, is the most standard way to express curvature of Riemannian manifolds. It associates a tensor to each point of a Riemannian manifold (i....
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