My Original Ideas


I make Popper falsifiable[i] original predictions in this book: Dark matter[ii] detectors will fail to register true signals because dark matter is caused by virtual particles inside the quantum vacuum not real particles outside the vacuum whizzing through space. Trying to find real dark matter particles is like Michelson and Morley in 1887 trying to detect the motion of Earth through the aether with their interferometer.[iii] A preponderance of virtual spin ½ fermion-antifermion pairs over virtual spin 1 boson pairs creates the net gravity attraction of dark matter that mimics cold dark matter real particles. Dark energy is the opposite.


I also claim to have essentially solved the mind-matter “hard problem.” I used David Bohm’s picture of quantum theory. The non-relativistic limit is valid for biological physics. I postulate that Bohm’s quantum information field called the quantum potential Q that pilots particles and electromagnetic fields is essentially “mental” or “thoughtlike” (Henry P. Stapp) with the particles and electromagnetic fields as “matter” in the common sense way of thinking. Orthodox quantum theory, that I will call “special quantum theory” in analogy with Einstein’s “special theory of relativity,” obeys the “no-signal theorem” in its several guises. This means that nonlocal quantum entanglement, now a powerful resource in applied physics of imaging, cryptography etc., cannot be used as a stand-alone command-control-communication-channel C4. Yes, one can encode a complex message nonlocally in a spatially extended entangled quantum system, like the electron switches inside the protein dimers in the microtubules of our brains in the Stuart Hameroff model, for example, but we cannot decrypt the spread-out coded message without light-speed limited classical signal keys. I say that our consciousness violates this restriction and the theory that explains it is, in analogy with Einstein’s general theory of relativity of the gravitational field - “general quantum theory.” Antony Valentini has published papers on “general” quantum theory where he introduces the idea of “signal nonlocality” in a more formal way than I did and Brian Josephson did independently before him. I claim that evidence for signal nonlocality is found in the independent “brain presponse” data of several experimental scientists, Ben Libet, Dean Radin, Dick Bierman, and most recently Cornell’s Daryl Bem in his paper “Feeling the Future.” Technically, the special quantum theory taught in school is linear and unitary provided that “strong” measurements are not made in between the time evolution of the quantum system. General quantum theory is nonlinear and non-unitary. Both of these properties can arise in different ways. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the ground state of complex systems is one way. General quantum systems, it seems, must be open systems pumped far from thermodynamic equilibrium like Ilya Prigogine’s “dissipative structures.” David Bohm with Basil Hiley showed that the no-signal property of special quantum theory comes from the violation of Einstein’s philosophical “action-reaction principle” that forms the essence of his general theory of relativity of the gravitational field. In special relativity, the four-dimensional spacetime continuum pilots the real force-free “geodesic” motion of particles and field configurations without any direct back-reaction of those piloted particles and fields on the spacetime-continuum. That is, the space-time continuum acts without being reacted upon directly! Einstein found this to be repugnant to his intuition of how God should have created the universe. Indeed, Wolfgang Pauli quipped that Einstein should stop telling God what to do. Einstein transformed the spacetime continuum from an absolute object into a relative object the geometrodynamical field in which the particles and non-gravity fields back-react directly producing curvature of the spacetime continuum. Indeed, such curvature permits time travel to the past as well as global faster than light messaging through traversable “stargate” wormholes that are the other side of the quantum entanglement coin where ER = EPR. Note, that locally, the message-signal travels slower than light inside the wormhole. It is faster than light only to observers outside the wormhole. So we have to borrow from John Archibald Wheeler “faster-than-light without faster-than-light.” The no-signal theorem of special quantum theory corresponds to wormholes with event horizons that pinch off before a message or traveller can get through the warped space tunnel. Anti-gravitating amplified dark energy holds the wormhole open. General quantum theory violating the no-signal theorem of special quantum theory depends on the dark energy that is about 68% of all the stuff in the universe. Now there are the naysayers who discount all this. However, because of the UFO evidence, I take the position in this book of “Damn the photon torpedoes, full warp ahead.”  One other point, Einstein’s equivalence principle allows artificial “non-tidal” gravity even in special relativity. We experience artificial gravity without curvature when we are at rest in accelerating reference frames called “non-inertial frames.” Real gravity fields correspond to hovering in a “stretch-squeeze” Weyl “tidal” curvature field. However, even in such a real gravity field with curvature, we can eliminate its “non-tidal” artificial gravity component by freely falling weightless on a timelike geodesic that is inside our local light cone. The light cone is the essential object in both special and general relativity. Now let’s return to the hard problem of our immediate experience of the “Now” in our consciousness called “qualia” by the mind-matter philosophers. I say that “qualia” are generated in our minds as immediate experiences from the direct back-reactions of the charged particles and electromagnetic fields in our brain on a macroscopically coherent quantum potential Q mental pilot field. Our conscious experiences, qualia, are simply excited states out of the ground state of our Q-field. The Q-field emerges from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a dissipative structure in our brains. Topological computing also probably plays an essential role because it is robust against thermal environmental decoherence. This would be a off-equilibrium biological version of the fractional quantum Hall effect in 2D nano-quantum wells with the braid group of anyonic fractional quantum statistics replacing the spin-statistics connection of 3D quantum systems. Indeed, the wrapping of the protein dimers around the microtubules inside our nerve cells is, it seems to my intuition, such a 2D nano-quantum well structure. Summarizing, the analogy of real tidal gravity curvature to conscious qualia is profound.


There are two kinds of Stephen Hawking black body radiation[iv]from black holes and our two past and future cosmological horizons that define the edges of our observable universe. Hawking’s original prediction was from low energy horizon surface area modes of vibration. The new higher energy radiation is from the quantum uncertainty thickness of these horizons. In particular, the black hole horizons are heat engines doing work whose outer regions pump out beams of particles.


·            Dark energy accelerating the expansion rate of the three-dimensional space of our universe, itself maybe a back-from-the-future hologram image, is redshifted advanced Wheeler-Feynman Hawking black body radiation with negative energy density.  Retarded radiation from past obeys the Feynman propagator boundary condition that positive energy propagates forward in time, while negative energy propagates backward in time. I postulate here, the mirror image anti-Feynman boundary condition for back-from the future advanced radiation: that negative energy propagates forward in time, while positive energy propagates backwards in time.  Therefore, even though w = + 1/3 for real black body thermalized photons they generate universally repulsive anti-gravity.  The cosmological expansion of space makes a blue shift for back-from-the-future advanced radiation, but it’s a very small correction to the enormously larger gravity redshift from our future dark energy de Sitter cosmological event horizon that may well be the holographicHawking Brain/Brane of God, whose software is his “Mind of God.” Indeed, the Hawking radiation energy density is the actuallyobserved hc/ALp2 where A is the area-entropy of the observer-dependent future cosmic horizon. A ~ 10124 quantum bits of information. In general quantum theory we have entanglement signal nonlocality, which makes the Brane of God conscious in my opinion – take it, or leave it.[v]

·            One of the most important principles in modern theoretical physics is that of local gauge invariance used in conjunction with the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking of the lowest energy state called the quantum vacuum for virtual particles and the quantum ground state for real particles. The “God Particle” of Peter Higgs found in the CERN LHC in Geneva, Switzerland, that gives rest masses to spin ½ fermion leptons and quarks as well as weak force spin 1 vector bosons is an example of the former. The persistent electric currents in quantized magnetized superconducting rings are an example of the latter. The equations of local gauge invariance that explain all the real forces of electromagnetism, weak and strong interactions are presented in text books as formal mathematical tricks without any immediate physical meaning. I have recently discovered their physical meaning. I have connected the pure mathematics of local gauge transformations to Einstein’s “objects of experience.” The simplest case is that of electromagnetism from the internal symmetry U1 unitary Lie group of continuous phase transformations. The electromagnetic field potential A transforms to A + (hc/e)d.  Of course, h is the Planck’s quantum of action and c is the speed of light in vacuum.  Everyone knows that  is the quantum phase of, for example, the electron test charge e’s wave function , whose rest mass m is induced by the Higgs vacuum superconductor field that presumably forms in the moment of inflation Alpha Point creation of our universe in the quantum phase transition from a false to the “true” vacuum. The total linear momentum of the charge coincident with the electromagnetic field A is the canonical momentum P


P = mV + (e/c)A


The gauge transformation keeps the canonical momentum P invariant. It does not change because from the Schrodinger quantum equation of motion


mV à mV - hdf


(e/c)A à (e/c)A + hdf


suddenly dawned on me that hdf is simply the linear momentum transfer Dp between the test charge and the electromagnetic field it is in local contact with. This is a near field electrical contact force caused by the exchange of a virtual photon whose momentum is simply hdf. Indeed, from Fourier analysis it is easily shown that the virtual photon has longitudinal polarization pointing in the same direction as its linear momentum. Let me remind the physicist reader that virtual particles do not obey Einstein’s “mass shell” constraint between energy and momentum. That is, unlike the case for real particles excited out of the vacuum, the equation


E2 = c2P2 + (mc2)2


Is violated for virtual particles.  Since Dp = hdf cancels out in an elementary exchange, DP/ds = 0 and DE/ds = 0 separately in such an exchange that takes time Dt. The local contact force per elementary exchange is


hdf/Dt  ~ - (e/c)DA/ds ~ ectric field)




DE Dt < h.


The action-reaction principle in this case in the form of linear momentum conservation and Noether’s theorem connecting conservation laws with continuous symmetries of dynamical fields is trivially obeyed locally without any need for the astrological belief called Mach’s Principle that inertial resistance to off-geodesic pushes by real forces in Newton’s second law of particle mechanics comes from the far away stars as suggested by Dennis Sciama and promoted by James Woodward and others. Einstein may be forgiven for flirting with Mach’s Principle in his struggle to create general relativity. He eventually rejected it as no more than a useful psychological crutch in his creative process. This same idea will work for the SU2 weak real force as well as the SU3 strong real force. Real forces push slower than light massive test particles off the timelike geodesics of the gravitational field in contrast to fictitious forces that are actually the non-tidal curvature-free part of the gravitational field itself! This is what the equivalence principle demands.


Amazingly enough, local gauge invariance also works for the proper off-geodesic accelerations of test particles in the gravitational field rather than the linear momenta of test particles being measured by those detectors. The key idea of gravity is that of the geodesic, which is longest proper time path connecting two events in Einstein’s unified four-dimensional spacetime continuum. That is, all neighboring paths that have the same starting and ending events have smaller proper times. This is an example of the “Action Principle” that is a key organizing idea of all theoretical physics. Clocks moving on these paths, called “world lines” measure proper time. Proper time is the amount you age if you are on that world line journey. Indeed, this explains why your twin who is abducted by an evil extra-terrestrial is much younger than you when they return him as in Francis Ford Coppola’s “4400” sci fi TV series for example.  The proper acceleration of a test particle is DV/ds where V is the “four-velocity” of the test particle relative to some detector at the origin of a local frame of reference.  In general, using my symbolic short hand without tensor indices to keep it as simple as possible, without being simpler than is possible (Einstein paraphrase):


DV/ds = dV/ds – {LNIF}(VV)


Where the symbol {LNIF} describes the detector at the origin of the local frame, in this case a “Local Non-Inertial-Frame.”  It’s also called the “Christoffel symbol”, the “Levi-Civita connection” and the “affine metric connection with zero torsion.” Mathematically it describes, “parallel transport” of geometric objects in a tangent fiber bundle whose base space is Einstein’s world spacetime continuum.  Physically it encodes all the fictitious forces on the observed test object Eve caused by real forces on the detector at the origin of the local frame of reference, either Alice or Bob’s. For example, {LNIF} could describe a rotating frame or a frame with translational proper off-geodesic acceleration, or both at once.  Any object, is on an off-geodesic world line only if an external real (EM-weak-strong) force acts on it. This is Newton’s second law of motion. Newton’s first law of motion is simply the “geodesic equation” that if no real forces act, the massive object moves along a timelike geodesic that is independent of the mass of the object. In this case, we assume that the mass of the object is not changing as it would in a rocket or jet ejecting mass in the exhaust.


We now consider a physical local frame transformation. Suppose Alice is measuring Eve’s motion. Also imagine that Bob is momentarily coincident with Alice and they both measure Eve’s motion with radars. Remember now, that Eve, Alice and Bob all with rest masses are each independently on arbitrary timelike world lines. Eve’s world line need not be close to Alice’s and Bob’s since they measure Eve’s motion with light signals. However, Alice and Bob must be physically near each other and must make their measurements of Eve almost simultaneously in order to test Einstein’s general relativity field equations. The local frame transformation between coincident Alice and Bob is X. The Christoffel symbol then transforms as


{LNIF}A à {LNIF}B = XX-1X-1{LNIF} A + X-1X-1dX






= X{LNIF}(VV)A + (VV)A dX


dVA/ds à dVB/ds = XdVA/ds – (VV)A dX


Just as the exchanged virtual photon momentum transfer hdfDt cancels out in the local electrical U1 contact gauge force for coincident fermion charge and spin 1 boson field, so does the gravity gauge transformation term (VV)AdX cancel out leaving the first rank tensor transformation


DVA/ds à DVB/ds = XdVA/ds


What is the physical meaning of the gravity gauge term dX(VV)A?

Obviously, it is the proper acceleration difference between coincident Alice and Bob.  Einstein’s equivalence principle tells us that a frame with proper acceleration is the same as a frame at rest in a non-tidal Newtonian gravity field. Because of the Unruh effect, it corresponds to the momentum of a macro-quantum coherent Glauber state of near field virtual spin 2 gravitons with momentum  (h/c2)dX(VV)A


I was much enthralled with John Archibald Wheeler’s geometrodynamics back in the late 1960s when I was a very young assistant professor of physics at San Diego State with Fred Alan Wolf who was an associate professor. Wheeler modeled the electron as a tiny wormhole with closed lines of quantized electric flux lines threading it. The quantization of electric charge was then trivially explained from the single-valuedness on the wormhole’s quantum wave function around a closed loop exactly like the quantization of magnetic flux vortices in Type II superconductors and the magnetic flux through superconducting rings carrying persistent currents. The electric flux entering one of the two wormhole mouths of the Einstein-Rosen bridge would be a tiny Kerr-Newman black hole pure vacuum black hole with negative electric charge from Gauss’s theorem. The flux leaving the other mouth in possibly a different parallel universe would have positive electric charge and would be a white hole. What we didn’t know back then, but what we know now some forty plus years later is that the white hole mouth is unstable while the black hole mouth is stable. Therefore, we have a trivial explanation for the C-charge violation, why we do not see anti-matter in the universe.  One major problem, if we want to explain the rest of the lepton and the quarks this way, is that Newton’s gravity G is too small. I should add, that quarks were not totally accepted back then. Geoffrey Chew’s analytic S-Matrix was also a competitor. Gerard t’ Hooft had not yet showed the renormalizability of Yang-Mills gauge theories and the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking of the vacuum giving a “superconducting” order parameter for the SU2 weak force. This order parameter was described by Glauber macro-quantum coherent states of virtual massive Higgs and virtual massless Goldstone quanta forming a spin 0 cosmic field that gives rest masses to the weak spin 1 boson of the radioactive weak force as well as rest mass to the spin ½ leptons and quarks.  Abdus Salam had introduced the idea of f-gravity with a strong force massive graviton. This gave a strong short-range gravity on the scale of a Fermi that was forty powers of ten stronger than Newton’s gravity at short scales. I immediately realized that Salam’s idea naturally explained why the slopes of all the Regge trajectories for hadronic resonances were parallel to each other in the plot of their spins against the square of their masses seen in the peaks in the resonance scattering cross sections. The hadrons were little black holes. Their Hawking radiation would explain their decay times.  Salam was excited by my discovery and he invited me to his Institute for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy 1973-4. My old idea has recently been rediscovered in 2013. I also got the idea that EPR quantum entanglement was the other face of the same coin describing the wormhole ER. That is, the two mouths of the wormhole connected by a stringy tunnel described, for example, an entangled electron-positron pair. Lenny Susskind and I knew each other at Cornell in 1963-5 and he rediscovered this idea not long ago.  We now know that all the no-go theorems of quantum information theory, which prohibit faster-then-light messaging, correspond to the pinch off of the wormholes with event horizon mouths when signals try to get through them. However, we also now know that the anti-gravitating dark energy permits traversable “stargate” wormholes whose mouths are not event horizons. Therefore, signals can get through them not only faster-than-light, but also even back-from-the-future in time. 


[i] The concern with falsifiability gained attention by way of philosopher of scienceKarl Popper's scientific epistemology "falsificationism". Popper stresses the problem of demarcation—distinguishing the scientific from the unscientific—and makes falsifiability the demarcation criterion, such that what is unfalsifiable is classified as unscientific, and the practice of declaring an unfalsifiable theory to be scientifically true is pseudoscience. This is often epitomized in Wolfgang Pauli famously saying, of an argument that fails to be scientific because it cannot be falsified by experiment, "it is not only not right, it is not even wrong!"


[ii] Dark matter is a type of matter hypothesized in astronomy and cosmology to account for a large part of the mass that appears to be missing from the universe. Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. It is otherwise hypothesized to simply be matter that is not reactant to light.[1] Instead, the existence and properties of dark matter are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the known universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy.