Chapter 6 has several seemingly paranormal orthodox quantum effects that seem magical to the strictly classical Newtonian mind such as the average member of the Committee to Investigate Claims of the Paranormal. This is even before we put in post-quantum signal nonlocality, the real OTO Crowleyan Magick without Magic that L. Ron Hubbard and Jack Parsons were looking for in the desert according to Robert Anton Wilson's "Illuminatus Trilogy "and other weird writings. See also the book "Strange Angel."
"What matters is that the ball has changed the energy of the particle in the cylinder even when the particle is far from the piston. Thus a change in the energy of the ball immediately shows that there is a particle in the cylinder even if the particle is nowhere near the piston! Now that is action at a distance." p. 79 Aharonov & Rohrlich
This is most easily understood as the action of the entangled Bohm quantum potential Q separate from the matter hidden variables "ball" and particle. However, all of Chapter 6 assumes Abner Shimony's "passion at a distance", there is always a Catch 22 even with the "modular observables" in which the spooky action-at-a-distance is uncontrollably random outside the future light cones of the entangled subsystems and there is no faster-than-light and retro-causal precognition in any of the effects Aharonov dares to tackle. In Valentini's terms Aharonov restricts his book to the limiting case of thermodynamic equilibrium of the matter classical dynamical degrees of freedom (aka "hidden variables). So Aharonov does not ask the really important question in my opinion.
I agree with his 6.4 on the analogy between quantum theory and Einstein's 1905 Special Relativity (SR), indeed, just as 1905 SR is the limiting case of Einstein's 1916 General Relativity (GR) in the limit of zero global curvature, so, too, is quantum theory the limiting case of post-quantum theory in the limit of zero direct back-action of the material hidden variables on the qubit Bohm quantum potential Q. One can use Antony Valentini's sub-quantal non-equilibrium of the hidden variables as equivalent to back-action. Therefore, pumped dissipative structures should generally allow signal-nonlocality outside the local light cones if this line of argument is correct - a testable Popper falsifiable proposition.
Note on Aharonov's 6.4: local signal quantum theory uniquely derives from two axioms
i) All physical interactions respect causality.
ii) Some physical interactions are nonlocal ("modular observables" have nonlocal dynamics)
analogous to Einstein's 1905 SR that derives uniquely from
i') The laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames.
ii') The speed of light in vacuum is invariant c.
Note that 1916 GR replaces i) by
i") The laws of physics are the same in all locally coincident frames of reference whether inertial or non-inertial. (general covariance)
ii") The laws of 1905 SR work inside zero g-force local inertial frames (Einstein's Equivalence Principle)
Similarly, in post-quantum theory
iii") Some physical interactions do not respect restrictions to the local forward light cones of the detectors. "Causality" is violated.
ii''') same as ii).