To read more,Observations, and the Standard Model of Cosmology Lecture: Monday, 2 July, 9.00 hrs, by Brian P. Schmidt: The standard model by which we understand the global properties of the Universe has emerged over the past 90 years based on the equations of General Relativity with the assumption that our Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. The relevant constants in this model are the Hubble constant (or current rate of cosmic expansion), the relative fractions of the species of matter that contribute to the energy density of the Universe, and these species’ equation of state, and the total density of all species of matter (which is equivalent to knowing the geometrical topology of the Universe).

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