Annual global CO2 emissions, currently about 37 gigatons, climbed 0.9% from 2018 to 2019, according to projections by the Global Carbon Project. That follows a 2.7% jump in 2018. China, which produces more than one-quarter of the world’s total emissions, has committed to leveling off its CO2 output, but not until 2030. Demand for electricity in India, now the third largest emitter, is expected to double over the next 20 years, and coal is expected to remain the major contributor, according to BP’s 2019 Energy Outlook. The need to reduce CO2 emissions is made more urgent by the difficulty of reducing agricultural sources of nitrous oxide and methane, greenhouse gases that contribute the equivalent of 10–20 Gt of CO2 per year.

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