In the fight against climate change, scientists have searched for ways to replace fossil fuels with carbon-free alternatives such as hydrogen fuel.

A device known as a photoelectrical chemical cell (PEC) has the potential to produce hydrogen fuel through artificial photosynthesis, an emerging that uses energy from sunlight to drive chemical reactions such as splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

The key to a PEC's success lies not only in how well its photoelectrode reacts with light to produce hydrogen, but also oxygen. Few materials can do this well, and according to theory, an called bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a good candidate.

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