As Enrico Fermi was once believed to have uttered while discussing the vastness of the universe and the high probability that there are other intelligent beings in it besides humans: “But where are they?” If he was still around in 1961 when astrophysicist Frank Drake created an equation which took in the variables needed for an intelligent extraterrestrial civilization to have the technical means to create a signal that could be detected and identified by another intelligent civilization, he would have looked at the probabilities and undoubtedly would have facepalmed before uttering something along the lines of: “See what I mean?” It is now 2023 and scientists and astronomers are still frustrated as they ponder why we have yet to receive a verifiable signal from extraterrestrials. A new study may answer that question … or at least put Dr. Claudio Grimaldi into the club with Drake and Fermi wondering “Where are they?”

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