Two-dimensional (2D) materials are being the subjects of increased scientific interest, potentially improving electronic devices past the limitations of conventional silicon substrates.

Most of the modern electronics - such as small parts found in computers, cellphones, and even electric appliances - are built on integrated circuits based on silicon carriers. However, despite the increasing densities of circuits embedded in these substrates, the technology has been growing more difficult because of silicon's natural limitations.

One of the possible alternatives is the use of 2D materials - ultrathin materials about one atom thick. Among the most common of these materials is graphene, a specially-fabricated sheet from a layer of graphite. Dutch-British physicist Andre Geim and Russian-British physicist Konstantin Novoselov were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics to discover graphene.

Although it is primarily composed of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice arrangement, graphene has continuously fascinated researchers with its unique properties. The ultrathin material is being studied for potential applications in various fields such as energy storage, optoelectronics, composite materials engineering, catalysis, sensing, and more.

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